The purpose of this study was to predict the effectiveness of Zahedan elementary school principals based on the triple factors of position in the Fiedler leadership model. The presented study was a descriptive correlational study in which 356 elementary school teachers were studied with stratified randomized sampling through two questionnaires including determining the leadership situation and the effectiveness of school administrators. The correlation coefficient and simultaneous multiple regression were used for data analysis with the help of SPSS software. Based on results, there was a positive and significant relationship between the three factors of leadership position (authority, leader-member relationship, duty structure). The results of multiple regression analysis also showed that the three situational factors can predict the effectiveness of school principals. Therefore, it can be concluded that school administrators should benefit from good authority, have good interactions with teachers and emphasize the structure of tasks to increase their effectiveness.