• Change as the Subject of Research in the International Relations Science

    Questions asked above are in fact questions about theoretical identity, explanative efficiency and scope of researches in the international relations science, undertaken attempts of answering them decide on particular complexity of the subject of researches, controversies around subjective scope of researches and research methods. Starting from the first serious, inter-paradigmatic debate at the turn of nineteen fiftiies and sixties, conducted by representatives of the realistic trend and new behavioural approach to the last debate from nineteen eighties and nineties, there has been lasting discussion on ontological and epistemological problems of the international relations science. However, it does not discourage researchers from continuing careful and considerable reflection on the condition of discipline and its place in the Pantheon of Science, and for sure it does not discourage them from deepening theoretical discourse on explanative efficiency of various theoretical approaches and their methodological correctness in the process of getting to know, as well as explaining world complexity at the turn of the 20th and 21st century and new gauntlets thrown down by the 21st century.

  • Media społecznościowe – nowa przestrzeń nauki

    Social Media – the new space of science
    Abstract: Internet and modern technologies has introduced permanent changes in many areas of human life. The process of acquiring knowledge does not look today the same as it did few decades ago. The widely understood world of science also has undergone transformations. Virtualization of various aspects of scientific institutions activity, as well as partial migration of scientific researches to the Internet, forced scientists to adapt to the new tools – the new media. The article is an attempt to characterize the presence of science in social media. Social networks are both research field and tool. In this area operate both academic institutions and independent researchers, often young people not affiliated with any university. Social media are both a new tool for institutional communication and also the space of connective and collective work of Internet users, who, under the new social rhetoric of gratuitousness, selflessly promote learning.

  • Professional Preparation of In-Service Teachers for ‘Prayas’ Program in Science and Impact in Classrooms

    Today most teachers enter teaching by means of a one or two-year undergraduate program in education (B.Ed.). There is provision of in-service training for teachers to make teaching effective in bringing quality to education. Various in-service teacher training programs are organized by District Institutes of Educational Training and State Institute of Educational Management and Training under Sarva Shiksha Abhiyaan in Himachal Pradesh. Yet, the impact of the training has not been reflected in the classrooms for the last fifteen years. There is not optimum improvement in the academic achievement of students. It is necessary to make teaching enjoyable and flexible through various activities, small projects and ICT in the new era. Creative and experimental activities are very much needed in the teaching of mathematics and science subjects. These activities help in building student confidence and give students more opportunities of learning. ‘PRAYAS’ at the upper-primary level is one of the programs organized by the DIET Solan to professionally prepare in-service teachers for implementing it at the school level. The objective of the study was to study the impact of the ‘PRAYAS’ in-service training program in Science in the educational block Kandaghat block of district Solan of Himachal Pradesh. Three schools were conveniently selected, two Govt. Senior Secondary Schools Chail and Kalhog, and one Govt. High School, Sakori, of the concerned educational block. Data was collected with the use of a semi-structured interview and the observations were recorded. It was found in the study that students made models and activities on the topics of their textbooks under the ‘PRAYAS’ program with eco-friendly materials and waste materials, utilized where suited. In this way, students learnt to use waste materials in everyday life. The models and activities were very low cost and easy to handle and care. The students learnt and understood the concepts easily. The outcomes of the program are discussed in the paper, which will be beneficial for the educational planners and administrators and in-service teachers of the State.

  • Kapitał naukowy uczniów jako przedmiot analiz teoretycznych i empirycznych

    The article is aimed at presenting the category of science capital as a new category in the field of pedagogical research. Science capital as a construct was proposed in the second decade of the 21st century by the team of Louise Archer from King’s College. This category consists of: (1) scientific forms of cultural capital, (2) behavior and practices related to science, and (3) scientific forms of social capital. The text presents the development of this concept together with a discussion of its elements and their meaning. Scientific capital can be one of the greatest wealth of society, and its use depends on the future development of not only individual units, but also the country and the possibility of high achievements in the fields of science. This is a very current issue, therefore it is important to better understand the shaping of the science capital of young people. The text also reviews the previous empirical studies devoted to the analyzed category. On this basis, it was concluded that scientific capital as an educational variable is still subjected to reconceptualization, requires refinement and further exploration.

  • Kulturowe cele rozwoju naukowego. Misja uniwersytetu w koncepcji José Ortegi y Gasseta

    The article deals with the important issue of defining the role and place of the university in the contemporary world. Globalization processes force far-reaching changes in social institutions, universities are also not free of them, so it is necessary to re-read the university’s mission in the context of current cultural changes. The inspiration for the conducted analyzes are the assumptions of the social theory developed by one of the most versatile thinkers of the twentieth century – José Ortega y Gasset.
    Using the analytical-synthetic method as well as the historical-comparative method, the topicality of the main assumptions formulated by Ortega y Gasset was demonstrated. Among them, the most important place is occupied by the postulates regarding the proper definition of the university mission. The basic thesis is the distinction between science and culture. While modern culture draws heavily on science – mainly technical and natural sciences – it is important to distinguish these two areas, giving decisive priority to culture. From this main assumption comes a number of logical consequences related to the necessary amendments to the university education profile. The general preparation of a humanistic profile, which is not only an introduction to the social reality but a sensitization to higher values, should definitely have greater significance. The education of professionals – specialists in narrow fields – can not be deprived of a broader reference to the cultural context. The University will properly implement its mission if, in addition to professional preparation, it will be able to prepare its graduates to live with others in the society.

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