Second Polish Republic

  • Białoruś Zachodnia w interpretacji polskiej: wybrane wątki historyczne i motywy liryczne Część I: Czynnik białoruski w historii państwa polskiego (od dawnych czasów do końca II Rzeczy Pospolitej)

    Author: Swietłana Czerwonnaja
    Year of publication: 2014
    Source: Show
    Pages: 246-272
    DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/npw2014213
    PDF: npw/07/npw2014213.pdf

    The history of the areas (incorporated to the Belarusian SSR in 1939), which in the Belarusian and Russian historiography adopted the geopolitical term “Western Belarus,” in Polish historiography is seen as an integral part of the overall history of the multinational Polish State. Regardless of the form of the state, which have evolved in the course of historical development (i.e. as part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, founded in the 16th century, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth – which from the late 18th to the early 20th century was under Russian domination; finally revived in 1918 as the Second Polish Republic of interwar era, which has become a victim of Nazi on the one hand and on the other hand, the Stalinist aggression in September 1939) the history of “Eastern Borderlands”, including areas inhabited mostly by Belarusian peasants, is recognized in Polish literature in the paradigm of “our common and only homeland”, to which the love, affection, compassion are inseparable from the whole Polish patriotism. The distinction between methodological principles of Polish and Russian-Belarusian (tsarist, Soviet and post-Soviet times) lies in the fact that in the last so-called “Western Belarus” occurs as an entity independent of the fate of Poland, subject of research and legal entity (on the basis of which, among others, it was incorporated in the Belarusian SSR), while in Polish studies and assessments of all aspects of the history and culture of the people of this country and its political transition are presented through the prism of Polish historical issues. This applies to threads, causing debates (for example, about the borders approved by the Treaty of Riga in 1921), grief, accusations of treason by a certain group of Belarusian activists of inter war era, a sad irony in relation to the so-called national enthusiasm with which Belarusians erected “welcome gates” for the Red Army. The first part of the article concerns texts by Józef Mackiewicz, Kazimierz Podlaski, Sokrat Janowicz and other authors who in Poland and in exile dealt with the history of “Western Belarus” until 1939.

  • Kresy Wschodnie w białoruskiej szkolnej narracji

    Author: Stanisław Boridczenko
    Institution: Uniwersytet Szczeciński
    Year of publication: 2018
    Source: Show
    Pages: 141-157
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2018.57.08
    PDF: apsp/57/apsp5708.pdf

    Problemem podjętym w artykule jest sposób przekazu przez system edukacji szkolnej Republiki Białoruś wiedzy dotyczącej znajdowania się części ziem Białorusi w granicach II Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej. Głównym uzasadnieniem wyboru tematu jest to, iż odpowiednio sformułowany program nauczania może wpływać na kształtowanie świadomości narodowej. Praca oparta jest na oryginalnych wynikach badań materiałów szkolnych używanych w systemie szkolnictwa Republiki Białoruś. W ramach rozprawy został opracowany model teoretyczny przedstawienia kresów w okresie międzywojennym w literaturze szkolnej Białorusi. Znaczącym elementem w badaniu jest uwzględnienie autorskich intencji zawartych w tekście oraz celowo stworzonego przez białoruskich historyków wizerunku Polaków oraz Rzeczpospolitej Polskiej. W wyniku przeprowadzonego opracowania został wyszczególniony charakterystyczny sposób postrzegania przez system białoruskiej edukacji II Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej, a także procesów odbywających się w tym okresie na ziemiach Zachodniej Białorusi. W rozprawie przyjęto tezę, zgodnie z którą Republika Białoruś w podręcznikach dla uczniów stwarza obraz wroga zewnętrznego, którego rolę w jej przypadku pełni Polska oraz Polacy.

  • Społeczne znaczenie osadnictwa wojskowego na ziemiach wschodnich II Rzeczpospolitej

    Author: Konrad Krystian Kuźma
    Institution: Akademia Pedagogiki Specjalnej im. Marii Grzegorzewskiej
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7159-6903
    Author: Olha Ohir
    Institution: Uniwersytet Warszawski
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5501-3317
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 154-176
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20202408
    PDF: npw/24/npw2408.pdf

    Social significance of the military settlers in the Eastern parts of the Second Polish Republic

    The article is devoted to the theme of military settlers (pol. osadnicy) in Eastern parts of Poland, which are called “Kresy”, in the first half of the twentieth century. The authors focus on the historical background of military precipitating caused by Polish government, as well as descriptions of the life of military colonialists in the eastern territories. Considerable attention is paid to the study of the social significance of the settlers, which is manifested mainly in the economic and cultural sphere. The topic of military settlers in the West of Ukraine has been poorly studied. Modern sources describe a small amount of information about history that caused the agrarian reform in Poland and their impact on life in Western Ukraine. The paper is focused on the problems of military colonization in the Eastern Poland in the first half of the twentieth century. The research methodology is based on the analysis of available facts, as well as the statistical evaluation of archival data. As a result, an assessment was made of the positive influence of the military colonization to economy in the West of Ukraine.

  • Obraz kultury chłopskiej w myśli politycznej wybranych partii ludowych działających w II Rzeczypospolitej

    Author: Marcin Wichmanowski
    Institution: Uniwersytet Marie Curie-Skłodowskiej
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-57487946
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 177-203
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20202508
    PDF: npw/25/npw2508.pdf

    The image of peasant culture in the political thought of selected people’s parties of the Second Polish Republic

    Culture formed a significant element of political thought of every major political movement, both during the final years of partition of Poland, and after it regained its independence. The scope of interest of people’s parties covered almost everything that had a rural context, relating to the many millions of peasants. The present article analyzes the program assumptions of the Polish People’s Party “Piast” [Pol. Polskie Stronnictwo Ludowe “Piast”], Polish People’s Party “Wyzwolenie” [Pol. Polskie Stronnictwo Ludowe “Wyzwolenie”], Peasant’s Party [Pol. Stronnictwo Chłopskie] and the People’s Party [Pol. Stronnictwo Ludowe] relating to the aforesaid category of political sciences. These parties played a significant role in the history of people’s movement, influencing the shape of the recreated Polish state during the interwar bi-decade. The political thought of people’s parties aimed at bestowing the peasant’s culture with both autonomous, and nationwide value. These ideological assumptions were included in the political programs of people’s parties.

  • „Byle polski sejm zaciszny, byle polski sejm spokojny”. Budowa i wygaszanie państwa prawa w II Rzeczypospolitej

    Author: Marek Stus
    Institution: Uniwersytet Jagielloński
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5588-8321
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 79-92
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2021.03.05
    PDF: ppk/61/ppk6105.pdf

    “May the Polish Sejm be Tranquil, may the Polish Sejm be Quiet”. Building and Phasing out the Legal State in the Second Polish Republic

    The inter-war period played the key role in the process of realizing the idea of the legal state in Poland. It brought the uninhibited opportunity to establish a new the form of government based on solid democratic standards and the rule of law for the first time since the country had lost its independence in the late 18th century. It was expressed in the legal instruments of the March Constitution of 1921. Practical enforcement of the legal state concept in the Second Polish Republic was far from ideal though. It resulted from various political, social, economic and international challenges. The March Constitution, not always clearly worded, was subject to widespread criticism and its cumbersome regulations were ignored. Moving gradually away from the rule of law, marked by the Sanacja elites becoming more authoritarian after 1926, was expressed on three levels: creating law, including subsequent constitutional regulations, it’s interpretations and enforcement. Gradual transformation of the parliamentary-cabinet system of the March Constitution into authoritarian state was the result of these processes. The article attempts to analyze the inter-war experience from the point of view of growing degradation of the rule of law and the reasons for its instability in the Second Polish Republic.

  • Ostatni niewolni we współczesnej Europie – relikty poddaństwa na Spiszu i ich zniesienie w latach trzydziestych XX w.

    Author: Wojciech Baran-Kozłowski
    Institution: Uniwersytet Jana Kochanowskiego w Kielcach
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6779-3090
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 104-117
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/hso210105
    PDF: hso/28/hso2805.pdf

    In Polish Spiš, incorporated on 28 July 1920 into the Second Polish Republic, there were three villages (Niedzica, Falsztyn and Niżne Łapsze) which belonged to two related families (the Salamons and the Jungenfelds). These villages were relics of feudalism in the form of serfdom of one of the categories of local peasants referred to as “żelarze”. This problem, solved in two stages in Hungary in 1848 and 1896, in Polish Spiš was not eliminated until 20 March 1931 when a legal act led to enfranchisement of “żelarze” by way of purchase over the next three years.

  • Francuska misja ekonomiczna w Polsce w 1929 r.

    Author: Magdalena Heruday-Kiełczewska
    Institution: Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3938-721X
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 108-130
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/hso210406
    PDF: hso/31/hso3106.pdf

    The French economic mission that came to Poland in 1929, has two aims: to visit the General National Exhibition in Poznań and to check how the interests of French companies in Poland were going. At the same time the two countries signed economic contract.

  • Collective emotional biography of selected Polish female parliamentarians of the interwar period

    Author: Katarzyna Jóźwik
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6747-4284
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 47-67
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/pbs.2021.03
    PDF: pbs/9/pbs903.pdf

    The main purpose of this article is to attempt to show the collective biography of Polish women parliamentarians of the interwar period through an insight into their emotions and feelings, to show the “emotional communities” presented by Barbara Rosenwein. In this text I will focus on the main problems of the political activity of Polish women parliamentarians in the interwar period. Source materials produced by women, mainly ego-documents and public documents created by them, will be used to develop this topic. The study will analyze the individual experiences of women parliamentarians. Their emotions, opinions and reflections on parliamentary work will be taken into account. The paper will also discuss selected biographical aspects of the women parliamentarians, such as their age, education and political views, which undoubtedly had an impact on their opinions and emotions. Polish women parliamentarians of that time had to struggle with many problems. Reluctance to place women on candidate lists was a common occurrence. Moreover, women had to meet numerous social expectations. First of all, they were required to be mothers and wives who were responsible for family life, that is, the private sphere. Furthermore, women were seen more as social activists than as politicians. At the same time, men considered women’s issues less important, which was evident in parliamentary discussions. The main research questions were: How did women perceive their own political activity? political activity? What problems did politically active women face?

  • Szkoła i armia jako podmioty oddziaływania wychowawczego państwa w myśli politycznej obozu narodowego w Drugiej Rzeczypospolitej w kontekście zainteresowań badawczych Ryszarda Borowicza historią wojskową, oświatą i politologią

    Author: Witold Wojdyło
    Institution: Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu
    Year of publication: 2014
    Source: Show
    Pages: 226-238
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2014.04.15
    PDF: kie/104/kie10415.pdf

    The active and direct participation of the state in the process of education was a very important and significant element that put the position of the main ideological-political formations in the interwar period in opposition to concepts constructed at the turn of the twentieth century. At the time of regaining independence, the state could be considered as one of the main subjects that were import_ant for rebuilding the awareness and collective identity of Polish people’s citizenship. Therefore, this text deals with the school and the army – institutions of educational influence during the Second Polish Republic – as the subjects of educational influence.

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