security

  • The Issue of Securitization of the Refugee

    Author: Renata Podgórzańska
    E-mail: renata.podgorzanska@wp.pl
    Institution: University of Szczecin (Poland)
    Year of publication: 2019
    Source: Show
    Pages: 67-89
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2019104
    PDF: ppsy/48-1/ppsy2019104.pdf

    Analyzing Poland’s current activity regarding the influx of refugees and the formulated attitude towards action in the field of restriction and control of the influx undertaken by European and international institutions, one should notice increasing reluctance to accept immigrants. What is more, there is a growing trend in the public debate in Poland to identify (to correlate) the influx of refugees with the problem of security. Although Poland is neither located on the main transit routes nor a destination for immigrants (including refugees), there is a process of systematically including this issue in the public discourse and analyzing the consequences of the potential increase in the influx of immigrants in the context of state security. Relationships that arise at the interface between migration and security point to the process of securitization of immigration, which involves integrating migration issues into a catalogue of state security threats and considering them through the lens of possible threats to the receiving societies.

  • Technology “democratization”. Peacetech – new quality of security management

    Author: Jarosław Piątek
    E-mail: jarekpiatek@wp.pl
    Institution: University of Szczecin
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4754-3371
    Year of publication: 2018
    Source: Show
    Pages: 59-70
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/rop201804
    PDF: rop/2018/rop201804.pdf

    Contemporary time, interpreted by the prism of security, is no longer dominated by easy to describe inter-state conflicts or regional threats. Experts every now and then define new types of threats such as cybercrime, cyberterrorism or cyberwar. The intense and multi-level uncertainty affects the understanding of the present and the predicted future, and thus the search for security by all of us. The answer depends in part on whether we are able to understand contemporary security environment. These issues are, to my mind, independent of the place in which we are. Using tools for diagnosing and monitoring security remains an open question. At the moment we are searching for a solution to this problem by means of modern technologies. The paper stresses the importance and application of e.g. Internet technology and global telecommunication. Interpersonal relations are being replaced with technological solutions. Nowadays, a phone or a computer connected to the web is sufficient to make contact with another person or check what information official sources are bringing us today. Actions for security as a result of incorrect reception of a message may be associated with erroneous perception of the content and propaganda. As a result, the recipient is consciously manipulated. New technologies take the form of nonconventional, organized activities for security. Any number of people can cooperate through the web for security management without actual superior authority. Members of such groups, established ad hoc, may use their knowledge to express objections or dissatisfaction. The paper also presents another aspect of using technology. According to the author, there are situations in which technologies acting for reinforcing security often cause objection, motivated by restricting civil freedoms and by the threat of an attack on a free and open society.

  • The position of the European Parliament on the European Union's Energy Security Policy

    Author: Artur Staszczyk
    Institution: Szczecin University
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9769-8991
    Year of publication: 2018
    Source: Show
    Pages: 112-122
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/rop201808
    PDF: rop/2018/rop201808.pdf

    Ensuring the energy security is currently one of the EU’s top priorities. The EU energy policy, after the entry into force of the Treaty of Lisbon, is regulated by Article 194 TFEU, which guarantees a solid legal basis for European Union actions in this area on the basis of the Community method. The European Parliament, within the scope of its Community competences, as a participant in the decision-making process, contributes to shaping the face of the EU energy policy. Furthermore, by adopting nonlegislative resolutions, the EP expresses its position on the most crucial issues included in this policy and has an indirect influence on its shape. The aim of this article is the analysis of the content of these resolutions and presentation of the EP’s opinion on the challenges facing the EU in the field of energy. It should be highlighted that the European Parliament is the EU body with a strong emphasis on a supranational approach to energy security. The European Parliament prefers the view that all Member States, in a spirit of solidarity, must take actions to guarantee the EU’s common energy security. In favour of a common, integrated European energy market, the EP puts great emphasis on the necessity to implement ambitious climate policy objectives within its framework, the key element of which is the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions.

  • The European Parliament in view of the development of the EU Security and Defence Policy after the Lisbon Treaty

    Author: Artur Staszczyk
    Institution: Szczecin University
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9769-8991
    Year of publication: 2018
    Source: Show
    Pages: 123-136
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/rop201809
    PDF: rop/2018/rop201809.pdf

    This article analyses the position of the European Parliament on the priorities for the development of the EU Common Security and Defence Policy. The issues covered by this policy after the entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty remained the domain of intergovernmental cooperation mechanisms. Despite the changes made to the Lisbon Treaty to unify the Union’s external relations by removing its pillars and expanding CSDP tasks, the role of the EP in its creation has not increased in line with its expectations. In accordance with the provisions of the TEU, decisions on the operation of the CSDP shall be adopted by the Council, acting unanimously on a proposal from the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy or from a Member State. As a result of such Treaty arrangements, the EP is unable to play such a role in the area of CSDP that would correspond to the importance of this body in the EU’s institutional system. Therefore, the main instrument for the implementation of the EP policy in the area of CSDP remain resolutions in which this body calls for the inclusion of transnational cooperation mechanisms in it. By expressing its position in resolutions, the EP advocates for the development of a strong, unified CSDP based on defined European security interests, as well as the development of a pan-European approach to the issues covered by this policy.

  • Sekurytyzacja islamu w Azji Centralnej

    Author: Nartsiss Shukuralieva
    E-mail: ns@ukw.edu.pl
    Institution: Uniwersytet Kazimierza Wielkiego w Bydgoszczy
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4046-9738
    Year of publication: 2018
    Source: Show
    Pages: 33-54
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/so2018202
    PDF: so/14/so1402.pdf

    Securitization of Islam in Central Asia

    The aim of the article is to analyse mechanisms of constructing Islam in the discourse and practices of undemocratic Central Asian countries. This objective will be accomplished through the references to securitization theory located within the framework of the constructivist paradigm. The major argument of the paper is that the discursive transformation of various dimensions of Islam’s existence into a homogeneous threat to the security was an important securitizing move. Its relevance is related to the national and international level of legitimacy. The strength of the securitizing move results from the amount of resources of the authoritarian Central Asian elites as the dominant securitizing actors. In the first part, the text critically discusses the radicalization of Muslims in Central Asia thesis and the practices of the state structures towards Islam. In the next part it will present various manifestations and dimensions of the securitization of Islam in the discourse and practice of the incumbent elites in Central Asia countries.

  • Bezpieczeństwo ładu ustrojowego w kontekście prawa do samorządu

    Author: Agnieszka Lipska-Sondecka
    E-mail: agnieszka.lipska-sondecka@apsl.edu.pl
    Institution: Akademia Pomorska w Słupsku
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8911-4087
    Year of publication: 2019
    Source: Show
    Pages: 11-20
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20192102
    PDF: npw/21/npw2102.pdf

    Safety Defense in the context of the law to local government

    Presented article shows current problems regarding the lack of compliance by public authorities of the fundamental principles and values defining the democratic systemic order.Failure to obey the constitutional rules of social life, circumventing the law, and even breaking them, weakening civic institutions, inevitably threats the security of the democratic systemic worked by Poland after 1989.In this context, the right to selfgovernment ceases to be one of the most important, elementary values allowing the fullfilling of the principle of a democratic state of law.

  • The Security of the Visegrad Group Countries in the Light of Interests of the European Union and the Remaining Member States

    Author: Katarzyna Witkowska-Chrzczonowicz
    Author: Maciej Serowaniec
    Year of publication: 2017
    Source: Show
    Pages: 82-94
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2017.02.05
    PDF: kie/116/kie11605.pdf

    The aim of the presented paper is to depict the approach of the European Union and its member states towards security in the countries belonging to the Visegrad Group. For V4 countries it is vital to implement such a policy that would make Western Europe aware of the threat and exert political pressure on the countries of the so-called old Union (in particular on France and Germany) to assume a greater responsibility for security and peace in the world as an international organisation and support all actions designed to establish real and effective common defence policy of the EU. Indeed, state security is presently ensured not only by the armed forces of a given country but also through the assurance of obtaining effective assistance (of different kind) from other states and international organisations guaranteed by international agreements.

  • Cybersecurity as a Premise for Restrictions of the Right to Privacy as a Constitutional Value

    Author: Katarzyna Chałubińska-Jentkiewicz
    E-mail: kasiachalubinska@gmail.com
    Institution: The War Studies University
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0188-5704
    Year of publication: 2019
    Source: Show
    Pages: 299-318
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2019.05.21
    PDF: ppk/51/ppk5121.pdf

    In this article the author analyzes various legal aspects necessary for maintaining the rights of citizens to live in a free, safe and democratic state of contemporary digital era. She presents philosophical and legal origins of the rights to privacy and the development of the concept in different countries with a particular emphasis of its place in the digital world of modern democracies. She tries to show the importance of this concept as the premise for national security and compares legal solutions in different countries all over the world. It makes the article important because her interests go into comparing and finding not only the best examples and legal cases but practical knowledge which may be used in academic work and research.

  • A “New” Middle East? Implications for Israel’s Security

    Author: Agnieszka Bryc
    Institution: Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń
    Year of publication: 2019
    Source: Show
    Pages: 7-23
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2019.64.01
    PDF: apsp/64/apsp6401.pdf

    The turbulent changes in the Middle East which were seen at the very beginning as good news for Israel, at the end of the day became more ambiguous. The Arab Spring and then the war in Syria that had erupted along with massive social protests ended up with regime changes, but what was crucial, the primary success of the Arab awakening was captured by Islamist movements. The changes in the Middle East were even deeper due to at least two factors – Russia „coming into” and the United States „going out” of the region. These new regional circumstances combined with the geopolitical shift in the Middle East and a crumbling American supervision made Israel conclude that its security has become more complex and the U.S has no more been the only significant great power player in the region. Hence the difficult political and military situation around Israel has created a need to adapt to security challenges and simultaneously, to take political opportunities. The goal of this paper is to highlight basic ramifications for Israeli security and diplomacy of the American and Russian factors in the current Middle East politics. The key questions are: How to secure Israeli interests in these new circumstances? How to assess, on the one hand, the risk of the ongoing decline of American interests in the region and, on the other hand, the complexity of the Russian strategy in the Middle East? Finally, whether Israel might be able to gain recognition by the Arab world, not to mention to keep its strategic domination in the region which is already being challenged by the Islamic Republic of Iran and its nuclear ambitions.

  • Zagrożenia asymetryczne w regionie bałtyckim – wybrane aspekty

    Author: Marika Sokół
    Institution: Akademia Marynarki Wojennej w Gdyni
    Year of publication: 2019
    Source: Show
    Pages: 168-180
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ksm201909
    PDF: ksm/24/ksm201909.pdf

    The article presents the problem of asymmetry in the aspect of threats. The reflections were made in reference to the Baltic Region. The analysis was made by approximating the meaning of the asymmetrical risk date and presenting the forms of their occurrence in the Baltic Region, and methods for their prevention and eradication.

  • Definition and Typology of European Union Missions

    Author: Luiza Wojnicz
    Institution: University of Szczecin
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4685-3984
    Year of publication: 2019
    Source: Show
    Pages: 161-176
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/rop201911
    PDF: rop/2019/rop201911.pdf

    In view of the contemporary challenges and threats, European Union’s efforts in the area of civil and military capacity building are extremely important. As an international organization having a high impact on third countries, the European Union plays a key role in conflict prevention and crisis response. In external governance EU has two sectoral policies at its disposal: the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) and the Common Security and Defense Policy (CSDP). The CFSP is responsible for resolving conflicts and fostering international understanding using diplomacy and giving respect for international rules. The CSDP is responsible for carrying out civilian and military missions as well as for diffusing rules, which affect, in various respects, the improvement of security management in third countries through their incorporation. By adopting today’s global approach, both military and civilian, to crisis management and continuing to strengthen its capacity for action and analytical tools, the European Union is becoming a major security vector at international level, and its Common Security and Defense Policy expeditionary missions are the tangible proof.

  • Krytyczna analiza postzimnowojennych relacji chińsko-indyjskich w perspektywie realizmu strukturalnego

    Author: Marcin Adamczyk
    E-mail: marcin.amadeusz.adamczyk@gmail.com
    Institution: Uniwersytet Wrocławski
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3432-0358
    Author: Patrycja Rutkowska
    E-mail: patient@op.pl
    Institution: Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9660-9528
    Year of publication: 2019
    Source: Show
    Pages: 7-28
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/so2019201
    PDF: so/16/so1601.pdf

    Critical analysis of post-Cold War China-India relations in the perspective of structural realism

    Our article is an attempt to answer the question of whether it is possible for two neighbouring countries, which aspire at the same time to the role of superpowers, to cooperate and have peaceful relations with each other. In order to answer this question, we intend to prove the thesis that the state of China-India relations, despite the appearance of good neighbourly relations, is defined by growing security problems. In order to do this, we intend to conduct a system-level analysis based on the current of structural realism in international relations using historical and comparative methods. The aim of this article is to critically analyze China-Indian relations in the post-Cold War period. At the same time, we intend to show that the thriving diplomatic relations between New Delhi and Pakistan are in fact a façade concealing poorly functioning economic relations and, above all, a number of security problems. The first chapter is a brief description of the theoretical framework of the article in the form of a realistic current in international relations and security research and an explanation of the applied concepts of power balance, security dilemma and bandwagoning. The second and third chapters are a brief description and analysis of political and economic relations after the Cold War. In chapter four, we identify the leading security issues in India-China relations. In summary, we try to answer the research question and confirm the thesis.

  • Zagrożenia dla bezpieczeństwa dzieci zamieszkujących w strefie konfliktu na wschodniej Ukrainie

    Author: Tomasz R. Dębowski
    E-mail: tomasz.debowski@uwr.edu.pl
    Institution: Uniwersytet Wrocławski
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9933-8911
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 136-153
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20202407
    PDF: npw/24/npw2407.pdf

    Threats to the safety of children in the conflict zone in eastern Ukraine

    Publications on the conflict in eastern Ukraine rarely describe the situation of children living in the combat zone. More attention is paid to the political, economic and military aspects of this confrontation. The author has set himself two goals. The first one is to check how the war affects the biological and mental aspects of children’s lives. The second is an attempt to answer the question whether there is a possibility of improving the situation of minors. The paper on the problematic system is divided into three parts. The first part draws attention to the following problems: difficulties with access to medical care, increased incidence of infectious diseases, growing drug addiction, drinking water pollution, as well as the threat of unexploded ordnance. The second part describes: threats to mental health of children, socialization problems (pre-school and school education, family crisis, shaping of national identity), as well as participation of child soldiers in the conflict in Donbass. The last section of the article contains conclusions. The considerations were prepared on the basis of carefully verified materials in English, Ukrainian and Polish. Many publications were downloaded from the websites of international organizations, analytical centers and scientific institutions.

  • Udział Hiszpanii w misjach bezpieczeństwa w Sahelu Zachodnim

    Author: Stanisław Kosmynka
    Institution: Uniwersytet Łódzki
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 103-116
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2020.65.07
    PDF: apsp/65/apsp6507.pdf

    Artykuł prezentuje uwarunkowania strategii bezpieczeństwa Hiszpanii wobec Sahelu Zachodniego, szczególnie Mali, Mauretanii i Nigru. Przedstawia przesłanki oraz charakter realizacji hiszpańskich misji wojskowo-szkoleniowych i policyjnych w tym regionie Afryki. Rozważania zawarte w analizie wskazują na transnarodowy aspekt zagrożeń płynących ze strony ekstremizmu dżihadystycznego, pozostającego tak często w symbiozie ze zorganizowaną przestępczością, czerpiącą profity z nielegalnej migracji, handlu bronią i substancjami psychoaktywnymi. Zależności te są widoczne w odniesieniu do wielu państw afrykańskich, m.in. obszaru Sahelu. Artykuł podejmuje refleksję nad znaczeniem sytuacji tego regionu dla bezpieczeństwa południowej flanki Unii Europejskiej, a zarazem wyszczególnia przedsięwzięcia i projekty tam realizowane przez państwa Europy Południowo-Zachodniej (Hiszpanię, Francję i Włochy).

  • Relacje kazachsko-rosyjskie i ich znaczenie dla bezpieczeństwa na obszarze postradzieckim

    Author: Paweł Bielicki
    Institution: Instytut Solidarności i Męstwa im. Witolda Pileckiego w Warszawie
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 51-71
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2020.66.04
    PDF: apsp/66/apsp6604.pdf

    Przedmiotem mojego zainteresowania jest przedstawienie najważniejszych uwarunkowań polityczno-ekonomicznych relacji pomiędzy Federacją Rosyjską a Kazachstanem. Głównym celem niniejszej pracy jest opisanie obecnego stanu rzeczy we wzajemnych kontaktach i ich znaczenie dla bezpieczeństwa na terenie byłego ZSRR. Ponadto istotna będzie próba odpowiedzi na pytanie, czy w najbliższym czasie Rosja będzie odgrywała dalej istotną rolę jako partner gospodarczy i polityczny Kazachstanu po ustąpieniu w marcu 2019 r. prezydenta Nursułtana Nazarbajewa. Na wstępie zamierzam odnieść się do historii relacji obu krajów, datowanej na czasy istnienia Związku Socjalistycznych Republik Radzieckich i kontroli Kazachskiej Socjalistycznej Republiki Radzieckiej przez władze komunistyczne na Kremlu. W dalszej części rozważań przedstawiam stosunki obu podmiotów bezpośrednio po upadku sowieckiego imperium i dojściu do władzy Nazarbajewa, który mimo chęci prowadzenia niezależnej polityki zagranicznej, utrzymywał ścisłe polityczne i gospodarcze więzi z Rosją, a także więzi wojskowe. Następnie poruszam problem kontaktów Moskwa–Nursułtan po aneksji Krymu, oraz więzi Kazachstanu ze Stanami Zjednoczonymi oraz Chinami. Chciałbym też odnieść się do implikacji wyboru na prezydenta Kasyma Tokajewa dla relacji z Rosją, Chinami oraz światem zachodnim. Dodatkowo prześledzę zależności ekonomiczne i kulturalne, występujące pomiędzy Rosją a Kazachstanem. W podsumowaniu uwypuklam perspektywy na przyszłość i staram się odpowiedzieć na pytanie, czy obecne relacje obu krajów ulegną intensyfi kacji w obliczu objęcia urzędu prezydenta przez Tokajewa, a także w jaki sposób wpływają one na bezpieczeństwo na obszarze postradzieckim.

  • Obecność rosyjskich sił zbrojnych na obszarze Naddniestrza w drugiej dekadzie XXI wieku – wybrane aspekty

    Author: Agnieszka Miarka
    Institution: Uniwersytet Śląski w Katowicach
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 72-86
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2020.66.05
    PDF: apsp/66/apsp6605.pdf

    Celem artykułu jest charakterystyka stanowisk: Federacji Rosyjskiej, Mołdawii i nieuznawanej Naddniestrzańskiej Republiki Mołdawskiej wobec obecności rosyjskich sił zbrojnych na obszarze Naddniestrza oraz motywacja działań podjętych w tej kwestii. W pierwszej części pracy skoncentrowano wysiłki na przedstawieniu genezy powstania państwa nieuznawanego w granicach Mołdawii i znaczenia dla tego procesu formacji rosyjskich. Następnie zaprezentowano podejście zainteresowanych stron do problemu alokacji sił rosyjskich w Naddniestrzu. Ponadto uwzględniono głos szeroko pojętej społeczności międzynarodowej (rezolucja ZO ONZ). Zaakcentowano również uwzględnienie tego zagadnienia w nowej strategii obrony Mołdawii (2018). Za priorytet uznano wydarzenia zaistniałe w drugiej dekadzie XXI w.

  • Non-Governmental Organizations in Ensuring Security

    Author: Jarosław J. Piątek
    E-mail: jarekpiatek@wp.pl
    Institution: University of Szczecin
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4754-3371
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 30-44
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/rop2020102
    PDF: rop/11/rop1102.pdf

    Various social, political and economic contexts give rise to visibly different concepts of security and these differences make one ponder on the limitations of traditional concepts of democratization and political development. Scientists, politicians and activists are now ever more boldly beginning to ask difficult but necessary questions about the appropriate dynamics of the processes of creating security and about the priorities adopted within them, searching for ways on which these processes could be co-created by traditional, local visions of needs of citizens’ safe life. The review of scholarly literature and political journalism addressing security points out new spheres of debates and subjects of controversy within this discipline. In a situation where in security-related processes governments cannot be the only ones that dominate, a question about the possibility of expanding activities with non-governmental organizations arises.

  • National Security and Public Administration in Modern Political Systems

    Author: Victoriia Zagurska-Antoniuk
    E-mail: kgn.zvf@gmail.com
    Institution: Zhytomyr Polytechnic State University
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3334-4494
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 96-106
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/rop2020106
    PDF: rop/11/rop1106.pdf

    The article deals with the problem of national security in the contemporary world which is greatly influenced by the process of globalization and digitalization. The paper highlights the role of national security in modern state building. The following issue has been of great interest to many outstanding scientists worldwide especially since the beginning of the XXI century. However, the subject matter of national security in the system of public administration has not been clearly defined yet. Therefore, the paper analyzes the approaches to define national security and points out its distinctive features. Moreover, it emphasizes the fact that at the level of national, regional and global relations the concept of national security is often associated with security strategies. Thus, the article puts emphasis on the predominant characteristics that help to distinguish between these two concepts. In addition, the research clarifies the characteristic features of national security as well as state security. Security, like many other categories of social sciences, does not have a conclusive definition. What is more, the category of security has an interdisciplinary significance. Therefore, scientists define it in accordance with the subject matter and the specifics of cognition and research. Nevertheless, many outstanding scholars view security as an anthropocentric category related to man’s socialessence and value. Accordingly, security presupposes having freedom from the risk, danger and the threat of change to the worse. Most scientists agree that security is a constituent of every aspect of human life. Consequently, security issues consideration is of great significance. All in all, nowadays it is greatly important to achieve a state of security as our globalized society frequently leads to different challenges and dangers. The results of the research contribute to better understanding of the issue and make it possible to introduce effective mechanisms of public administration in the field of national security.

  • Peaceful Ways of Solving International Disputes by the Mediation Method and Legal Security of State

    Author: Marcin Jurgilewicz
    E-mail: m.jurgilewicz@prz.edu.pl
    Institution: Rzeszow University of Technology
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2243-2165
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 317-329
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2020.06.26
    PDF: ppk/58/ppk5826.pdf

    Nowadays, international disputes appear in the public space, which results, for example, from the fact that the needs are unlimited and the goods are limited. Due to its specific nature, the international environment requires a compromise between the entities operating in it. A desirable direction in case of conflicts between international entities is to resolve them by peaceful means. In the international environment, one of the largest international organizations - the United Nations - is of great significance, especially in the field of maintaining international order and peace. In turn, according to the provisions of the Charter of the United Nations, it is possible to resolve international disputes by peaceful means, and among the characteristic methods used in this type of proceedings is the mediation method, the effectiveness of which allows, in the long term, to maintain the desired state of peace, strengthening the legal security of the state.

  • State Security and Hybrid Warfare. An Interdisciplinary Approach

    Author: Leszek Elak
    E-mail: l.elak@akademia.mil.pl
    Institution: War Studies University in Warsaw
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5255-9768
    Author: Paweł Zając
    E-mail: p.zajac@akademia.mil.pl
    Institution: War Studies University in Warsaw
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2188-5720
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 429-448
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2020.06.35
    PDF: ppk/58/ppk5835.pdf

    The article concerns the issues of state security both in legal terms and from the perspective of security science. In the first part, it presents a proposal for understanding the concept of state security based on the Polish Constitution. The article is also a contribution to the discussion on the correctness of terminology relating to the analyzed issue. The second part concerns the analysis of a new military phenomenon which is a hybrid war. The purpose of the considerations is to show its impact on state security.

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