• Changing the Model of the Polish Electoral Administration

    Author: Jacek Sobczak
    E-mail: jmwsobczak@gmail.com
    Institution: University of Economics and Humanities in Warsaw
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2231-8824
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 69-82
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2020.06.05
    PDF: ppk/58/ppk5805.pdf

    The conduct of free elections depends to a large extent on the efficient functioning of electoral bodies. The doctrine distinguishes a number of models of functioning of election administration bodies. The standards of functioning of electoral bodies at the European level are defined by the standards of the Venice Commission, and in particular the Code of Good Practice in Electoral Matters. In Poland, after World War II, the adopted model of election administration did not meet democratic standards. It was only after 1990 that the State Election Commission was established as a permanent body consisting exclusively of judges of the Supreme Court, Constitutional Tribunal and Supreme Administrative Court. This concept was abandoned in an atmosphere of massive criticism of the judiciary. Although the model adopted now does not directly violate international standards, it seems to be a step backwards from the regulations existing after 1990.

  • Status prawny sędziów w Finlandii. Analiza teoretyczno-prawna

    Author: Viktoria Serzhanova
    E-mail: viktoria@ur.edu.pl
    Institution: Uniwersytet Rzeszowski
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8824-7192
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 283-296
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2021.01.17
    PDF: ppk/59/ppk5917.pdf

    The legal status of judges, based on ensuring their autonomic and independent functioning, is a fundamental attribute of the system of justice, a prerequisite and a guarantee of the implementation of the principle of a democratic legal state. It is not different in the Finnish constitutional system. The aim of this study is to analyze the legal status of judges in Finland. The subject of the analysis covers the examination of the qualifications required from candidates for the post of a judge, the procedures for their appointment and dismissal, and the attributes of the realization of their autonomic and independent status. The legal analysis has been conducted on the grounds of the provisions of the Basic Law of 1999 regarding the status of judges and the provisions of the relevant laws on courts and the appointment of judges. This study allowed to conclude that the above guarantees enable the objective and impartial functioning of the judiciary in Finland in accordance with the principle of a democratic state ruled by law, as in terms of adjudication courts are fully autonomic and independent and are not subject to state control, while court judgments are the last resort guaranteeing parties respect for their rights in relations with the state.

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