The aim of our study was to examine adolescent personality in relation to the adolescent school-related self-concept, in particular to its cognitive aspect according to W.U. Meyer’s conception. In addition to selected personality dimensions, our paper focuses also on gender relations of the adolescent school-related self-concept. The research sample was made up of grammar school and university students (N = 100). The five-factor model of personality NEO-FFI (P.T. Costa, R.R. McCrae) and SCEA-M questionnaire (U. Engler, W.U. Meyer) were used as research tools. The results show a statistically significant relationship between neuroticism and fear of social consequences. There is also a statistically significant relationship between conscientiousness and the self-concept of ability. Statistically significant gender differences in favour of women appear in the dimension of fear of social consequences.