senat

  • O potrzebie przywrócenia sądu honorowego i wprowadzenia przeprosin poselskich i senatorskich do polskiego prawa parlamentarnego

    Author: Marcin M. Wiszowaty
    E-mail: mwiszowaty@konstytuty.pl
    Institution: Uniwersytet Gdański
    Year of publication: 2017
    Source: Show
    Pages: 101-125
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2017.05.07
    PDF: ppk/39/ppk3907.pdf

    There is no universal regulatory model of parliamentary ethics. The issues of parliamentary ethics are regulated in various countries by acts of varying degrees, usually statutes and parliamentary standing orders. There are countries where redress for abusive conduct of MPs is subject to general rules such as civil liability. Law in other states provides specific sanctions and means of redress for breach of ethics. Traditional forms of redress, referring to the rules of honor procedure of knighthood and nobility, include various forms of apology: personal, written, in mass media, and a particularly interesting type of apologies – to the whole parliament (chambers) as an offended “person”. The inter-war history of the Polish parliament provides an interesting example of an honorary court institution that dealt with cases of offence of one member by the other and the marshal’s court – gathering in case of the violation of the honor of a member by a non-parliamentarian. The honorary court survived until the first years of the communist period. Since 1997, there has been a parliamentary commission in the Polish Parliament, whose mode of operation and system of sanctions’ apply – does not meet its task. The aim of this article is to propose innovative and restorative changes in the area of the subject matter in Poland -- first of all – the restoration of court of Honour and the introduction of an apology from MPs and Senators for breach of ethics.

  • Miejsce Senatu w porządku ustrojowym Rumunii – analiza systemowa

    Author: Magdalena Maksymiuk
    E-mail: saczukm@gmail.com
    Institution: Uniwersytet Kardynała Stefana Wyszyńskiego w Warszawie
    Year of publication: 2018
    Source: Show
    Pages: 263-281
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2018.04.15
    PDF: ppk/44/ppk4415.pdf

    Artykuł dotyczy Senatu, który jest drugą izbą parlamentu Rumunii. Pokazuje, w jakim środowisku prawno-ustrojowym został on po niemal 50 latach przywrócony do porządku konstytucjonalnego państwa. Opisuje całą procedurę wyborczą, w tym sposób wyboru kandydatów na deputowanych. Ponadto wskazuje na kompetencje Senatu w zakresie oddziaływania na władzę wykonawczą i sądowniczą, a także pokazuje jego działania na arenie międzynarodowej. Przedstawia przebieg procesu legislacyjnego wraz z rolą drugiej izby parlamentu, a także opisuje jej funkcję kontrolną oraz kreacyjną. Pozwala to pokazać, że w parlamencie Rumunii panuje model dwuizbowości symetrycznej.

  • “Legislative Veto” of Senate – The Controversial Element of the Legislative Procedure Under the Rules of the Constitution of Republic of Poland of 1921

    Author: Tomasz Litwin
    E-mail: tomasz.litwin@gmail.com
    Institution: Akademia Ignatianum w Krakowie
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6956-6959
    Year of publication: 2019
    Source: Show
    Pages: 39-51
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2019.06.03
    PDF: ppk/52/ppk5203.pdf

    The Polish Constitution from 1921 established the bicameral model of the parliament composed of Sejm and Senate. The Article 35 para. 2 of the Constitution clearly sanc- tioned the right of the Senate to reject the whole draft of the bill adopted by the Sejm. However, neither this rule nor any other rule of the Constitution precised the conse- quences of such practice. This loophole in the constitutional rules caused controver- sies among constitutional law experts from that time and remains controversial even at present. The main aim of the article written within the constitutional-legal perspective is to present the position of the most prominent legal experts and the position of the au- thor on the analyzed issue.

  • The Participation of the Second Chamber of Parliament in the Implementation of the Control Function on the Example of the Senate of the United States of America

    Author: Anna Hadała-Skóra
    E-mail: hadala.anna@interia.pl
    Institution: Uniwersytet Rzeszowski
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6432-5651
    Year of publication: 2019
    Source: Show
    Pages: 199-210
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2019.06.15
    PDF: ppk/52/ppk5215.pdf

    This article is devoted to one of the classic functions of the legislature, which is the con- trol function. In the first part of the elaboration the author focuses on the characteriza- tion of such concepts as control, parliamentary control and the control function regard- ing doctrinal level. The rest of the article deals with the specific competences by which the Congress of the Senate of the United States of America participates in the perfor- mance of the parliamentary control function.

  • A Few Remarks on the Audit Activity of the Senate of the Republic of Poland

    Author: Lech Jamróz
    E-mail: l.jamroz@uwb.edu.pl
    Institution: University of Białystok
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7409-6525
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 139-148
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2020.06.10
    PDF: ppk/58/ppk5810.pdf

    In its activities, the Senate uses a number of control powers defined by statutes and regulations, although this is not directly based on the provisions of the Polish Constitution. Such a practice is justified, if one considers the nature of the Senate as a representative body and the nature of the senatorial mandate, which does not differ from the nature of the deputy mandate. The role of the Senate, also in the scope of the indicated powers of a controlling nature, may increase when a different political majority in the Senate than in the Sejm is formed. As a result of the post-election agreement in 2019, the political majority in the Senate is different from the political majority in the Sejm. This new phenomenon in the Polish political system creates the possibility of a wider use of the Senate’s “soft” control tools. The presented paper attempts to synthetically present the reasons for considering the Senate’s control powers and their impact on ensuring systemic stability.

  • Competences of the United States Congress in the Impeachment Procedure

    Author: Anna Hadała-Skóra
    E-mail: annahadalaskoraur@gmail.com
    Institution: University of Rzeszów
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6432-5651
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 583-590
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2020.06.47
    PDF: ppk/58/ppk5847.pdf

    This article is devoted to the impeachment procedure in the United States of America. The first part of the article outlines a short historical background on the subject. In the following part, the impeachment procedure is characterized in its current form, with particular emphasis placed on the role of the House of Representatives and Senate of the United States of America. The data concerning the processes that took place in the Senate as a result of the impeachment procedure are also indicated.

  • Senat dwudziestolecia międzywojennego w Rzeczpospolitej Polskiej i Czechosłowacji

    Author: Magdalena Maksymiuk
    E-mail: maksymiuk.uksw@gmail.com
    Institution: Uniwersytet Kardynała Stefana Wyszyńskiego w Warszawie
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5711-4920
    Author: Marcin Karlikowski
    E-mail: m. karlikowski@interia.pl
    Institution: Uniwersytet Kardynała Stefana Wyszyńskiego w Warszawie
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7825-7111
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 369-385
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2021.01.22
    PDF: ppk/59/ppk5922.pdf

    The article is an attempt to compare the constitutional position of the second chambers of parliament in the interwar period in Poland and Czechoslovakia. It was the time of shaping the post-war order. The article shows differences and similarities between the two systems in regard to Senates, bearing in mind the similar political situation at that time, as well as the similarity of drawing patterns from the constitutional order of the Third French Republic.

  • Prawo petycji jako instrument rozwoju działalności prawodawczej Senatu

    Author: Mateusz Chrzanowski
    E-mail: m.chrzanowski@umcs.pl
    Institution: Uniwersytet Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej w Lublinie
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4099-0980
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 325-334
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2021.04.20
    PDF: ppk/62/ppk6220.pdf

    The right to petition as an instrument for the development of the Senate’s legislative activity

    This article presents the issue of the right to petition as a social tool influencing legislative proceedings in the Senate. The considerations begin with an analysis of the legal norms regulating the institution in the presented scope. Some suggestions for changes have also been made with the aim of improving the quality of the petition process. Practice shows that this instrument of social participation is an important source of inspiration for the creation of the Senate’s legislative initiative, but it could be used even more effectively. In the context of the principle of national sovereignty, the principle of a democratic state ruled by law and social dialogue, it is extremely important to give the institution of petition a substantial shape and ensure it has a real influence on the legislative process.

  • Pozycja ustrojowa przewodniczącego na przykładzie izb Kongresu Stanów Zjednoczonych Ameryki

    Author: Anna Hadała-Skóra
    E-mail: annahadalaskora@ur.edu.pl
    Institution: Uniwersytet Rzeszowski
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6432-5651
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 427-435
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2021.04.28
    PDF: ppk/62/ppk6228.pdf

    The political position of the chairman on the example of the houses of the Congress of the United States of America

    This article is devoted entirely to the institution of the President on the example of the Congress of the United States of America. The office of the chairman, whose competence is to conduct deliberations, is characteristic of bodies with a collegial structure. This applies especially to those of them whose composition consists of more than a few persons. The author of the article focus on all aspects concerning this office. In the first part there is a brief characterization of the models of the institution of the speaker of parliament, as well as a historical outline of this institution. In the next part an author present the systemic position of the presiding officers of the chambers of the American Parliament.

  • Senat Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej - izba druga czy izba drugoplanowa?

    Author: Radosław Grabowski
    E-mail: rgrabowski@ur.edu.pl
    Institution: Uniwersytet Rzeszowski
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3362-7363
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 449-459
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2021.04.30
    PDF: ppk/62/ppk6230.pdf

    Senate of the Republic of Poland – second chamber or secondary chamber?

    The Polish model of bicameralism assumes the lack of symmetry between the chambers. Certainly, a stronger position in the procedure of adopting laws can be attributed to the Sejm (first chamber), and a weaker position to the Senate (second chamber). An analogous domination of the Sejm cannot be discussed in the case of changes to the constitution, ratification of international agreements, or the election to perform state functions indicated in the Constitution of the Republic of Poland. It should be noted that the relations between the chambers of the Polish parliament are subject to changes. The actual relations between the first and second chambers depend to a large extent on the currently binding provisions of the electoral law, the results of the elections based on them, and the formation of a certain majority in the Sejm and Senate.

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