The article presents the results of empirical research, conducted according to quantitative strategy, on the significance for the level of school helplessness of the conditions of psychosocial development created for pupils in their fifth year of learning in primary school in relationships with teachers and peers and in relation to the grades received in Polish language and math classes throughout the school year. The regression analysis indicated that relationships with teachers exert the stronger impact on the level of helplessness, followed by school grades, and relationships with peers. The teacher can influence each of these factors. This means that the chances that pupils have of fulfilling the developmental task for the age of 7 to 12, in accordance with Erik H. Erikson’s stages of psychosocial development, are largely dependent on the teacher. Not only the successes in subsequent life stages but also the motivation to learn, creativity, flexibility of thinking and acting, persistence, and the emotions accompanying pupils while learning are dependent on a sense of competence. The care and attention of teachers given to ensure that every pupil can develop their competences and sense of agency according to their potential is in the interests of pupils, teachers, and society alike.