stany nadzwyczajne

  • Stany nadzwyczajne w sytuacji szczególnego zagrożenia państwa w cyberprzestrzeni

    Author: Jakub Rzucidło
    E-mail: jakub.rzucidlo@gmail.com
    Institution: Wałbrzyska Wyższa Szkoła Zarządzania i Przedsiębiorczości
    Author: Justyna Węgrzyn
    E-mail: j.wegrzyn@wpa.uz.zgora.pl
    Institution: Uniwersytet Zielonogórski
    Year of publication: 2015
    Source: Show
    Pages: 131-158
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2015.05.07
    PDF: ppk/27/ppk2707.pdf

    In the article the Authors presented a problem of extraordinary measures in the event situations of particular danger in cyberspace. The analysis of this issue is made on the basis of constitutional and legal solutions (Act of martial law, Act of the state of emergency, Act of the state of natural disaster). The Authors refered to the concept of cyberspace and classified the risks in this area. The also assessed the appropriateness of the measures adopted by the legislature.

  • Czy ustawa z dnia 5 stycznia 2011 r. Kodeks wyborczy może być zmieniona w okresie stanu nadzwyczajnego? Uwagi na gruncie art. 228 ust. 6 Konstytucji RP

    Author: Jan Uniejewski
    E-mail: jan_uniejewski@wp.pl
    Institution: Uniwersytet Szczeciński
    Year of publication: 2016
    Source: Show
    Pages: 27-39
    DOI Address: https://www.doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2016.04.02
    PDF: ppk/32/ppk3202.pdf

    Przedmiotem niniejszych rozważań uczyniono pytanie, czy zakaz zamiany niektórych aktów normatywnych odczytywany z przepisu art. 228 ust. 6 Konstytucji RP obejmuje swym zakresem przedmiotowym również przepisy ustawy – Kodeks wyborczy, czy też przeciwnie – Kodeks ów może być poddany zmianom także w czasie trwania stanu nadzwyczajnego. Pytanie to, jest o tyle zasadne, że przepis art. 228 ust. 6 posługuje się szczególnym pojęciem „ordynacja wyborcza” niezastosowanym w tytule Kodeksu wyborczego. Rozważając przedmiotowe zagadnienie jedynie w warstwie językowej, nacechowanej formalizmem interpretacyjnym, można dojść do błędnego przekonania, iż zmiany Kodeksu wyborczego w czasie stanu nadzwyczajnego są dopuszczalne. Autor falsyfikując tę tezę, zdecydowanie opowiada się za twierdzeniem przeciwnym, zgodnie z którym w czasie stanu nadzwyczajnego nie może zostać zmieniony Kodeks wyborczy, ani żaden akt wykonawczy wydany na jego podstawie i w celu jego wykonania. Wszelkie zaś prace legislacyjne aktów tych dotyczące winny zostać zawieszone.

  • Relacja zasad ograniczania wolności i praw człowieka i obywatela w stanach nadzwyczajnych i w stanie normalnego funkcjonowania państwa

    Author: Anna Surówka
    Institution: Uniwersytet Ekonomiczny w Krakowie
    Year of publication: 2014
    Source: Show
    Pages: 131-156
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2014.04.07
    PDF: ppk/20/ppk2007.pdf

    The issue of permissibility of limitation of the freedoms and rights of persons and citizens in extraordinary measures causes a lot of problems. They are consequence the imposition two different regulations relative the limitations: the general regulation appearing from article 31 paragraph 3 Constitution and the special regulation including in the Chapter XI Constitution concerning exclusively the extraordinary measures. The answer for the question, when and in which circumstances it shall adapt the special rules concerning the limitation of the freedoms and rights in extraordinary measures and when the general regulations appears from article 31 paragraph 3 Constitution, depends on a few matters. Firstly, it depends on the type of introducing extraordinary measure.Secondly, it depends on the type of the freedom or right, which it have to be limited. The next problem, it is the method of interpretation and applying the rules concerning the limitations. In this area, the rule of proportionality in interpretation of the Constitutional Tribunal is of great importance.

  • Przegląd regulacji stanów nadzwyczajnych w przepisach Konstytucji RP

    Author: Tadeusz Bryk
    Institution: Uniwersytet Szczeciński
    Year of publication: 2011
    Source: Show
    Pages: 223-234
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2011.01.11
    PDF: ppk/05/ppk511.pdf

    In legislation of each democratic country of law have to be regulations concerned extraordinary situations. Very important think is the regulations don`t violate rights and civic liberties more than absolutely necessary and state use this regulations only in really extraordinary situations. Constitution Republic of Poland provided in IX chapter named “Extraordinary situations” three kinds of such situations: Marshall law, state of emergency and state of disaster. Each of this situations is also regulate by separated act. Polish regulations in this scope are generally enough secure rights and civic liberties and secure the state by danger abuse of authority.

  • Restrictions on Human Rights and Freedoms During the Time of Epidemic in Poland

    Author: Agnieszka Gajda
    E-mail: agnieszka.gajda@ug.edu.pl
    Institution: University of Gdansk
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1348-174X
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 17-27
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2020.05.01
    PDF: ppk/57/ppk5701.pdf

    When in 2020 the World Health Organization announced a COVID-19 contagious disease pandemic, it was clear that governments must take actions to limit the consequences of pandemia. Poland was one of the first to introduce far-reaching measures, limiting freedom of movement and closing an increasing number of business and activities. The Polish Constitution contains potential extraordinary measures, including the provision for declaring a “state of natural disaster”, but the Polish government has refrained from enacting it. Instead, it is based on a “state of epidemic”, which is not provided for in the Constitution as the legal ground for limiting human rights. The purpose of this study is to answer the question whether human rights restrictions introduced during the epidemic have a sufficient legal basis from the point of view of the Polish Constitution and the resulting principles.

  • Regulacja stanów nadzwyczajnych w Republice Estońskiej a pandemia COVID-19

    Author: Katarzyna Szwed
    E-mail: szwed@ur.edu.pl
    Institution: Uniwersytet Rzeszowski
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2755-2804
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 375-387
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2021.04.24
    PDF: ppk/62/ppk6224.pdf

    Regulation of emergency states in the Republic of Estonia and the COVID-19 pandemic

    There are two types of emergency states distinguished by the Constitution of the Republic of Estonia: state of emergency and state of war. They have been sparsely regulated at the level of the Constitution, leaving detailed issues to statutory regulation. The decision in this regard requires the cooperation of parliament with the authorities of executive power, i.e. the president and the government. The threat to the health and lives of citizens posed by a coronavirus pandemic is not a circumstance justifying the imposition of a state of emergency, let alone a state of war as stipulated in §§128–129 of the Constitution. Thus, the Estonian authorities in March 2020 decided to apply the mechanism of §87 section 8 of the Constitution.

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