Stany Zjednoczone

  • Institutionalization of Strategic Partnerships : Comparative Analysis of Established European Union Partnerships with the United States, Japan and Canada

    Author: Agata Domachowska
    Institution: Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8521-9399
    Author: Karolina Gawron-Tabor
    Institution: WSB University in Toruń
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8535-913X
    Author: Joanna Piechowiak-Lamparska
    Institution: Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0021-2519
    Year of publication: 2018
    Source: Show
    Pages: 200-222
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2018.60.12
    PDF: apsp/60/apsp6012.pdf

    Strategic partnerships are nowadays one of the tools most willingly applied in foreign policy. The subject of the presented analysis is the institutionalization process of a strategic partnership understood as the functioning of certain norms and rules in a given relationship (expressed in the founding documents of partnerships) and the regularization of joint bodies and meeting formats. The aim of the article is a comparative analysis of institutional solutions applied in the European Union’s strategic partnerships with its established partners: the United States, Japan, and Canada. The results show that it is possible to identify a pattern of institutionalization process used by the European Union in its relations with strategic partners; they also reveal how great importance contemporary players in the international arena attach to institutionalization processes in their mutual relations.

  • Konstytucyjność eksponowania w przestrzeni publicznej Dekalogu w świetle orzecznictwa sądów Stanów Zjednoczonych

    Author: Grzegorz Maroń
    E-mail: grzemar6@op.pl
    Institution: Uniwersytet Rzeszowski
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3861-9103
    Year of publication: 2019
    Source: Show
    Pages: 147-170
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2019.01.08
    PDF: ppk/47/ppk4708.pdf

    The article presents – based on the study of the U.S. case law – the issue of the legality of Ten Commandments displays on government property. Federal and state courts do not agree on the constitutionality of Decalogue displays in a public space. The given case law is characterized by incoherence, casuistry and nuance. The issuing of divergent decisions by the courts in analogous cases is primarily a consequence of the lack of consensus in the judicature regarding the understanding of the constitutional principle of the separation of church and state. The author shares the stand of these American courts, which, while assessing the consistency of Ten Commandments displays on public property with the requirement of religious neutrality of public authorities, take into account the fact that the Decalogue has not only a religious dimension but also a historical and cultural ones. Since the Ten Commandments played an important role in shaping the American legal and social order, its contemporary presentation in public space does not necessarily serve confessional or proselytic purposes, but constitutionally accepted educational goals. It is crucial in the judicial operationalization of the Establishment Clause to make a distinction between the permissible “recognition” of the religion’s significance in the lives of Americans and in the history of the Nation and the State on the one hand and the unconstitutional “advancement” of religion by the pubic authorities on the other hand.

  • Konstytucyjny wymiar kontroli inwigilacyjnej polityki państwa na przykładzie Stanów Zjednoczonych Ameryki

    Author: Paweł Laidler
    E-mail: pawel.laidler@uj.edu.pl
    Institution: Uniwersytet Jagielloński w Krakowie
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1338-3285
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 331-341
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2021.03.22
    PDF: ppk/61/ppk6122.pdf

    Constitutional Oversight of Government Surveillance in the United States

    The aim of the article is the analysis of constitutional oversightof the government surveillance in the United States. Referring to Snowden affair and COVID-19 surveillance, the Author discusses the challenges faced by the legislative and judicial branches in pursuing control over the executive’s national security policies. Focusing on the rule of secrecy and other constitutional doctrines and privileges, he tries to explain why effective control of government surveillance is today impossible.

Wiadomość do:

 

 

© 2017 Adam Marszałek Publishing House. All rights reserved.

Projekt i wykonanie Pollyart