state

  • Privatisation of Security: Private Military Contractors Serving Governments

    Author: Jarosław Piątek
    E-mail: tankpanc@wp.pl
    Institution: University of Szczecin (Poland)
    Year of publication: 2017
    Source: Show
    Pages: 118-131
    DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2017208
    PDF: ppsy/46-2/ppsy2017208.pdf

    Privatisation of security did not appear in the process of revolution. Under conditions of deepening international relations, as well as integration and globalisation processes, security of the state, as well as other entities, is subject to a number of dependencies. The article casts some doubt on how much states are prepared to take such actions, while not losing the attribute of monopoly on violence. Moreover, the article presents doubts about the ranks of modern armed forces. Private Military Firms (PMFs) are new actors the actions of which affect the security. The contemporary image of the PMF functioning is a phenomenon on a global scale. In the twenty-first century, small businesses can have a huge impact on the reality and international affairs. Leaving military firms without state control proves that they do not understand the dynamics, range, risks and challenges posed by cooperation with entities that are allowed to use force. Furthermore, despite devastating consequences that occurred during the state stabilisation operations, these firms continued to outsource services to contractors, while not creating any legal control over them.

  • The Aristotelian Criticism of the Liberal Foundations of Modern State

    Author: Marcin Gajek
    E-mail: marcin.gajek@civitas.edu.pl
    Institution: Collegium Civitas in Warsaw (Poland)
    Year of publication: 2016
    Source: Show
    Pages: 272-287
    DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2016021
    PDF: ppsy/45/ppsy2016021.pdf

    The paper discusses some fundamental differences between Aristotelian and modern conceptions of the state. It focuses its attention on the early liberal thinkers, such as Thomas Hobbes and John Locke, and contrasts the theory of state developed by them with the classical republican ideal described by Aristotle. As I will demonstrate main differences come down to (1) distinct ideas concerning the state’s origins (and especially human motivations behind establishing the state), (2) divergent convictions about the role of the state and its ethical dimension; and finally (3) different beliefs concerning basic feelings and passions which sustain existence of political community. I argue that on the basis of Stagirite’s philosophy it is possible to question whether civic association described by the precursors of liberal political thought is actually the state. In conclusion, I signalize the problem of serious limitations of contemporary liberal democracies (or even their internal contradictions) resulting from their attempt to follow an ideal of an ideologically neutral state. 

  • Razlichija mezhdu ontologicheskimi osnovami polskojj i russkojj kultur Chelovek. Svoboda. Istorija. Gosudarstvo

    Author: Katarzyna Kowalska - Stus
    E-mail: kowalska.hanna@gmail.com
    Institution: Uniwersytet Jagielloński, Poland
    Year of publication: 2017
    Source: Show
    Pages: 123-145
    DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/npw2017208
    PDF: npw/13/npw2017208.pdf

    Societies create cultural models in order to maintain their identity. They constitute a reflection of values and symbols to which they are the most attached. In Russia, there has been a dispute about cultural identity for a long time. During Vladimir Putin’s presidency, when the liberal idea was devalued, a serious debate about the future of Russia was commenced. In contrast to Russia, Poland has always emphasized its European roots and identity of its culture with the Western culture. Comparative studies of the two cultures lead to the conclusion that significant differences are views of: man, freedom and the state. The definition of man in a given culture is associated with the worldview. In Russian culture it has been formulated on the basis of monastic practice and experience of Church Fathers. Hesychasm and deification – are the basis of the Orthodox anthropology. In the contemporary Russian culture one can observe the revival of hesychasm, which stems from the life practice. Latin anthropology was formed under the influence of Saint Augustine’s Confessions. According to Augustine, man is dust and only his „self ”, the person, is endowed with „existence, consciousness and will”. Augustine was the first Latin theologian, who pointed out the historical subjectivity of an individual. Therefore, the European thought identified man with historical ones: the state, nation and economics. The issue of a person’s freedom is the basic issue of Western anthropology. Man perceived himself as an autonomous entity that exists thanks to the autonomous intellect and respects the rights of others adhering to the same principles. Freedom in Orthodox culture is understood as inner freedom from external determinants Saint Augustine formulated a number of problems which are the basis of the Western understanding of the state. The specificity of understanding Augustine’s state is associated with the belief that people are sinful and it has an impact on the state system. Russian state doctrine is connected with Byzantine heritage. The idea of Moscow the Third Rome is a continuation of Byzantine diarchy. The contemporary Russian state thought says that liberal democracy and internationalism are unfamiliar to Russian culture. It finds it necessary to return to the ideocratic country and calls for recovering from the Russian disease of self-consciousness – “occidentalistic rootlessness”.

     

  • Carskaja vlast i narodnye sudy kochevogo naselenija Turkestana: problemy vzaimootnoshenijj (po arkhivnym, pravovym i inym materialam)

    Author: Akylbek L. Saliev
    Year of publication: 2014
    Source: Show
    Pages: 192-201
    DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/npw2014110
    PDF: npw/06/npw2014110.pdf

    The article considered written sources concerning the practice of imperial power, represented by administration of K.P. Kaufman, the first governor-general of Turkestan and national courts of Turkestan.

  • Znaczenie traktatów wielostronnych w dziejach Europy

    Author: Iwona Galewska
    Year of publication: 2013
    Source: Show
    Pages: 171-181
    DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm201313
    PDF: ksm/18/ksm201313.pdf

    The article discusses the importance of issues of multilateral treaties in the history of Europe since 1945. It is when a large number of international organi­zations were launched, including those that were regional like European Com­munities/European Union. The author tackles the issues of multilateral agree­ments between countries and international organizations and the European Union, that have been grouped according to scope. Verification of the scientist problem resulted finding that multilateral treaties are undeniable urge to reg­ulate new areas of relationships, but they do not replace the bilateral relations between the countries. Evidenced by the increase in the number of bilateral agreements together with the increasing number of multilateral agreements.

  • Konflikt chińsko-tajwański w ujęciu paradygmatu realistycznego – trzy poziomy analizy Kennetha Waltza

    Author: Natalia Sienko
    E-mail: natalia.s1993@wp.pl
    Institution: Uniwersytet Wrocławski
    Year of publication: 2017
    Source: Show
    Pages: 59-78
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/so2017204
    PDF: so/12/so1204.pdf

    The Chinese-Taiwanese conflict in realist paradigm – three levels of Kenneth Waltz’s analysis

    This article attempts to systematize the possible sources and causes of the Chinese-Taiwanese conflict based on the three levels of analysis presented by Kenneth Waltz. The author discusses the assumptions of realism theory (structural realism) on the basis of the modes of functioning of the individual, state, and international system. Through this analysis, it will be possible to assess the location of the various elements (forces) driving the war in the international system.

  • Relacje państwo–Kościół na przełomie XX i XXI wieku. Przypadek Polski

    Author: Grzegorz Piwnicki
    Institution: Uniwersytet Gdański
    Year of publication: 2017
    Source: Show
    Pages: 146-164
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/cip201709
    PDF: cip/15/cip1509.pdf

    Problemy wiary i religii państwa świeckiego, ich wzajemnych relacji są w czasach chwiejącego się świata1 bardzo istotne i nie do przecenienia.
    Należy szukać odpowiedzi jak pogodzić renesans religijności ze wzmożonym sekularyzmem w różnych krajach. Mówimy również o postsekularyzmie. Te ważkie zagadnienia determinują podziały polityczne w Polsce. Bez wspólnego dialogu, dążenia do konsensusu, odrzucenia fundamentalności możemy jako wspólnota polska przestać istnieć.
    Grozi nam przejście od utopii do dystopii. Wszystko zależy od tego jak reagować na te wyzwania będą państwo i Kościół katolicki. Należy również odrzucić wszelkie fobie i nacjonalizm z szowinizmem narodowym.

  • Questions important now like never before. Asymmetry of war or of warfare?

    Author: Jarosław Piątek
    E-mail: jarekpiatek@wp.pl
    Institution: University of Szczecin
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4754-3371
    Year of publication: 2018
    Source: Show
    Pages: 44-58
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/rop201803
    PDF: rop/2018/rop201803.pdf

    Asymmetry of warfare, or more often asymmetric warfare, is an issue often referred to in descriptions of contemporary political and military relations affecting the state. It is even presented as an entity threatened by these hostilities. Meanwhile, these acts are a form of an armed conflict in which opposing sides have different military potentials. One of the potentials is the power of the state. We must wonder then how the state uses it. Is it not an entity who uses it in a way disproportionate to the situation of conflict? The paper argues that a contemporary state is not without sin and it is not just that it is not able to protect its interests from asymmetric threats. Warfare still is, which many forget, the basis for hostilities (war). In the author’s understanding (erroneous perhaps?) asymmetry does not only occur at the level of war, but it also happens in its key dimension – warfare. It has emerged not only through the change in the status of the fighting party, but also through the time of warfare and using the warfare terrain.

  • Personalistyczny model polityki

    Author: Stanisław Wójcik
    Institution: Katolicki Uniwersytet Lubelski
    Year of publication: 2015
    Source: Show
    Pages: 7-24
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2015.47.01
    PDF: apsp/47/apsp4701.pdf

    PERSONALISTIC MODEL OF POLITICS

    In the ongoing discussion of politologists who present different ways of comprehending politics, personalistic approach emphasizes the need for improving political power in terms of humanization. It also underlines the necessity of further development of the state to increase citizens’ participation in real political power. That is why there are numerous models and types of politics. Constant search and development is the basic trend in history, as well as in social and political life. Personalistic model of politics elevates the man’s dignity.

  • REFLEKSJE NA TEMAT NARODU I PAŃSTWA W POLSKIEJ MYŚLI POLITYCZNEJ

    Author: SEBASTIAN PACZOS
    Year of publication: 2014
    Source: Show
    Pages: 63-89
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/hso140203
    PDF: hso/7/hso703.pdf

  • Uniwersytet jako czynnik konsolidacji społeczeństwai państwa polskiego (1907–2007)

    Author: Roman Tomaszewski
    Institution: Akademia Pomorska w Słupsku
    Year of publication: 2019
    Source: Show
    Pages: 89-122
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ksm201906
    PDF: ksm/24/ksm201906.pdf

    The school protest in the Polish part of Russia and Germany that took place in 1907 forced young Poles to educational emigration. In Galicia, Polish-language academic institutions have developed a new elite. Together with Polish graduates of Western European universities turned out to be the main factor consolidating society around the idea of rebuilding the state. In the revived Second Republic of Poland, academic circles proved a counterbalance to autocratic rule in 1926-1939. The more so because the number of universities increased from 8 to 32 and they represented a high, world class level of education. After 1945, the rapid reconstruction of Polish universities and the consolidation of the academic community have prevented the communists from taking over higher education. In addition, after the turn of 1956, the autonomy of Polish universities was expanded despite the riots in 1968. Martial law and the breakdown of Solidarność resulted in taking over the function of socio-political opposition by academic circles up to 1989. In turn, the breakthrough made at that time was also thank to Polish elites, but at the same time led to a rapid development of the number of universities and the birth of academic capitalism. An attempt to violate the autonomy of universities in 2005-2007 stimulated the academic community and contributed to the collapse of the PiS government in 2007. Universities and the elites educated in them are in the long run more important for society than the institution of the state, material or economic resources, or armed forces. From this perspective, the Polish case confirms the proposed thesis and the visibility of the third function: supporting democratization processes in the society.

  • Dependent Territories and Unrecognized States as Participants in Contemporary International Relations

    Author: Karol Piękoś
    E-mail: karol.piekos@yahoo.pl
    Institution: University of Rzeszów
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4545-5909
    Year of publication: 2019
    Source: Show
    Pages: 267-279
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2019.06.20
    PDF: ppk/52/ppk5220.pdf

    Due to contemporary political conditions, there is a number of geopolitical entities outside the states that are not internationally recognized as states, due to a number of sociological, legal, historical and political factors. The world’s changes may contribute to the changes of the status of non-state geopolitical units. Authorities from unrecognized states have been making efforts for many years to recognize members of the international community as full, but this is a difficult task. Also, in the societies of dependent territories, the need for change is more and more often considered to be crucial, because it is very important for their future. There is no doubt that contemporary international relations constitute an interesting research field, if only due to the problems of recognition and lack of recognition of the states undertaken in the following considerations.

  • Regulation of Fashion by Legal Acts in the Russian Empire

    Author: Zakharova Oksana Yuryevna
    E-mail: irinamak67@ukr.net
    Institution: Independent Researcher
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2143-7020
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 9-20
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ksm20200101
    PDF: ksm/25/ksm2501.pdf

    Attempts to regulate by the governance of mode of life and behavior of partials in the history of imperial states were especially evident in the fashion industry. The article explores the evolution of the Russian court costume, as well as the uniform of officials and students during the XVIII-XIX centuries in the context of social political reforms that took place in the state during this period of time.
    The content of government decrees published in the full collection of laws of the Russian Empire is analyzed, which contain orders on the color of the fabric, cut and trim of the costume. The purpose of this lawmaking is to “reconcile” the old Russian traditions with the norms of modern European life. A special place in the study is given to the reforming activities of Peter I, who, with his decrees, changed the entire “sign” system of Ancient Russia. Peter I “changed clothes” of the Russian elite into a European costume, but after the October Revolution of 1917, the Soviet elite could not wear the prePeter garb, which, like the entire “sign system” of the Moscow kingdom, was associated with the ideas of Orthodoxy, the inviolability and the eternity of regal power.
    In the 20-30s of the twentieth century, the struggle in the USSR against the tailcoat and tall hat was a struggle against bourgeois ethics, and as a result, a struggle against the norms of Western European etiquette.
    It is revealed that the problem of “form” in the broadest sense of the word was of particular importance for Russian life. The pressure of a powerful, but not organized force - all this increased the importance of external forms and organization of life, be it a form of government structure or everyday life.

  • US president’s inauguration ceremonial as a factor in intercultural communication

    Author: Oksana Zakharova
    E-mail: mikepriluki@gmail.com
    Institution: Independent Researcher
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2143-7020
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 114-124
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/rop2020208
    PDF: rop/12/rop1208.pdf

    The article considers the history and development of the inauguration ceremonies of US presidents. Their role in legitimizing power and their influence on creating the image of the state is evaluated. The very specificity of the inauguration as a social phenomenon makes this ceremonial action a kind of illustration of the cultural condition, mores and tastes of society, national characteristics, becoming a symbolic characteristic of hierarchical differences. Its norms reflect not only ideology, but also the social psychology of society, without an adequate interpretation of which it is impossible to correctly understand the behavior of statesmen in specific situations related to their social status. State civil and military ceremonies, being, as a rule, striking events in the life of the state, have symbolic meaning. They establish a balance between their immediate participants and the highest environment, testify to the stability/instability within the ruling elite. Modern ceremonials of the inauguration of world presidents are politics, prestige, and the image of the government in power.

  • Specifics of the So-Called Islamic State

    Author: Kinga Smoleń
    Institution: Maria Curie-Skłodowska University
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 84-111
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2020.67.06
    PDF: apsp/67/apsp6706.pdf

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the specific character of the so-called Islamic State. For the purposes of the study it is based on two assumptions. Firstly, the rise of the so-called Islamic State was determined by a number of regional and international conditions, in particular the destabilization of the Middle Eastern order, the events of the Arab Spring, operations of the United States in the region, globalization processes, and technological development. Secondly, the specific nature of the so-called Islamic State, reflected in the use of violence and intimidation, noncompliance with the principles of international law, and challenging the international order exclude the possibility of the entity in question being considered as a person of international law. To begin, with view to attain the research objective stated above and under consideration of the research hypotheses adopted herein, this paper examines the root causes behind the rise of the so-called Islamic State at the regional and international level. Subsequently, it defines the specific nature of the entity in question, taking into account its territory, internal structure, principles of operation, and personality.

  • The Reform of the State According to Law and Justice and the Civic Coalition in the Election Programmes of the Parliamentary Elections in 2019

    Author: Damian Wicherek
    E-mail: wicherekdamian@gmail.com
    Institution: University of Rzeszow
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1710-0820
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 297-306
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2020.06.24
    PDF: ppk/58/ppk5824.pdf

    The article analyzes the election programmes of the two largest political parties in Poland, namely, Law and Justice and the Civic Platform (Civic Coalition) from the 2019 parliamentary elections, referring to the proposals of these parties to change the functioning of the state, in particular the scope of legislative, executive and judicial power. The conclusion summarizes the presented programme proposals, considering whether their implementation would be possible under the current political conditions.

  • Peaceful Ways of Solving International Disputes by the Mediation Method and Legal Security of State

    Author: Marcin Jurgilewicz
    E-mail: m.jurgilewicz@prz.edu.pl
    Institution: Rzeszow University of Technology
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2243-2165
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 317-329
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2020.06.26
    PDF: ppk/58/ppk5826.pdf

    Nowadays, international disputes appear in the public space, which results, for example, from the fact that the needs are unlimited and the goods are limited. Due to its specific nature, the international environment requires a compromise between the entities operating in it. A desirable direction in case of conflicts between international entities is to resolve them by peaceful means. In the international environment, one of the largest international organizations - the United Nations - is of great significance, especially in the field of maintaining international order and peace. In turn, according to the provisions of the Charter of the United Nations, it is possible to resolve international disputes by peaceful means, and among the characteristic methods used in this type of proceedings is the mediation method, the effectiveness of which allows, in the long term, to maintain the desired state of peace, strengthening the legal security of the state.

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