state of emergency

  • New Challenges for the Right to Privacy During the COVID-19 Pandemic - The Outline of the Problem

    Author: Olga Hałub-Kowalczyk
    E-mail: olga.halub@uwr.edu.pl
    Institution: University of Wrocław
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2747-2625
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 421-430
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2020.05.31
    PDF: ppk/57/ppk5731.pdf

    At the beginning 2020, the vast majority of countries worldwide were forced to confront and face the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. The rapid spread of this new disease resulted in radical changes in the basic principles of the functioning and organization of states and entire societies. The novel circumstances which both nation states and the international community are facing induce reflection on the need of redefining the right to privacy. This paper aims to answer, whether the current situation will lead to lasting changes in the way privacy is now perceived in Europe and what threats may be associated with the possible changes.

  • Stan klęski żywiołowej jako przedmiot aktywności poselskiej w latach 2005–2019

    Author: Karol Piękoś
    Institution: Uniwersytet Rzeszowski
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 62-76
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2021.70.04
    PDF: apsp/70/apsp7004.pdf

    Konstytucja Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej z 2 kwietnia 1997 r. stworzyła możliwość wprowadzenia trzech odmiennych stanów nadzwyczajnych w sytuacji szczególnych zagrożeń. Specjalne przepisy dotyczące stanów nadzwyczajnych zostały określone w trzech odrębnych ustawach, które zostały przyjęte w 2002 r. W latach 2005–2019 w Polsce wystąpiły liczne zdarzenia, które media określały jako klęski żywiołowe. Pomimo że regulacje ustawowe obowiązują od 2002 r. (Dz.U. 2002 nr 62 poz. 558), w Trzeciej Rzeczypospolitej nigdy nie wprowadzono stanu nadzwyczajnego. Posłowie w ramach swojej aktywności parlamentarnej kierowali na przestrzeni V, VI, VII i VIII kadencji zapytania i interpelacje w tej sprawie. Analiza aktywności poselskich związanych ze stanem klęski żywiołowej może być pomocna przy próbie identyfikacji sposobu postrzegania tego stanu nadzwyczajnego przez polityków, a to z kolei pozwoli ustalić przyczyny nieposługiwania się tym instrumentem prawnym przez rządzących.

  • Regulacja stanów nadzwyczajnych w Republice Estońskiej a pandemia COVID-19

    Author: Katarzyna Szwed
    E-mail: szwed@ur.edu.pl
    Institution: Uniwersytet Rzeszowski
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2755-2804
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 375-387
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2021.04.24
    PDF: ppk/62/ppk6224.pdf

    Regulation of emergency states in the Republic of Estonia and the COVID-19 pandemic

    There are two types of emergency states distinguished by the Constitution of the Republic of Estonia: state of emergency and state of war. They have been sparsely regulated at the level of the Constitution, leaving detailed issues to statutory regulation. The decision in this regard requires the cooperation of parliament with the authorities of executive power, i.e. the president and the government. The threat to the health and lives of citizens posed by a coronavirus pandemic is not a circumstance justifying the imposition of a state of emergency, let alone a state of war as stipulated in §§128–129 of the Constitution. Thus, the Estonian authorities in March 2020 decided to apply the mechanism of §87 section 8 of the Constitution.

  • Konstytucyjne prawo do bezpieczeństwa w świetle wprowadzenia stanu wyjątkowego na granicy Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej z Republiką Białorusi

    Author: Wojciech Wróblewski
    E-mail: wwroblewski@sgsp.edu.pl
    Institution: Szkoła Główna Służby Pożarniczej
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3415-9485
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 535-544
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2021.05.42
    PDF: ppk/63/ppk6342.pdf

    The constitutional right to security with regards to initiation of the state of emergency on the border of the Republic of Poland and the Republic of Belarus

    The article has been prepared to present the constitutional approach to the security problem with regards to the initiation of the state of emergency on the border of the Republic of Poland and the Republic of Belarus. The publication indicates the relationship between security regulations and constitutional regulations, makes a preliminary analysis of actions taken by the Republic of Belarus, and also indicates a cause-and-effect relationship in the context of regulating the introduction of a state of emergency in a situation of a special security threat.

  • Restrictions in Freedom of Business Activity and Worker Rights. Comparative Analysis of Provisions in Force During the 1st Wave of COVID-19 Pandemic and Constitutional Regulations on the State of Emergency

    Author: Agata Ludera-Ruszel
    E-mail: aruszel@ur.edu.pl
    Institution: University of Rzeszow
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4433-5884
    Author: Karol Piękoś
    E-mail: kpiekos@ur.edu.pl
    Institution: University of Rzeszow
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4545-5909
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 317-327
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2021.06.25
    PDF: ppk/64/ppk6425.pdf

    The reaction of the Polish government to the COVID-19 pandemic was the undertaking of numerous actions, which resulted in restrictions in running a business activity. The made decisions gave rise to controversies due to the scale of restrictions despite failure to implement any of the constitutional states of emergency. The article presents an analysis of the scale of restrictions set during the first wave of the pandemic, and an attempt was made to compare their scope with solutions envisioned for the state of emergency.

  • Senatus Consultum Ultimum - State of Emergency in Ancient Rome

    Author: Renata Świrgoń-Skok
    E-mail: rskok@ur.edu.pl
    Institution: University of Rzeszow
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2635-6462
    Author: Anna Pięta-Szawara
    E-mail: apieta@ur.edu.pl
    Institution: University of Rzeszow
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7237-295X
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 543-553
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2021.06.43
    PDF: ppk/64/ppk6443.pdf

    This paper presents the senatus consultum ultimum, i.e., the final resolution of the senate passed in moments of extraordinary danger to the Roman Republic. We answer the question what was the legitimacy of such resolutions and indicate their rationale and the effects of their issuance. Senatus consultum ultimum was the most powerful weapon of the Roman senate in the fight against internal political enemies in the late republic, so it needs to be clarified whether the SCU was a legitimate measure to protect the state or it cared only for the political self-determination of the senate and the optimates.

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