system of government

  • Change of the government model in Poland

    Author: Ryszard Balicki
    Institution: Wroclaw University
    Year of publication: 2015
    Source: Show
    Pages: 215-226
    DOI Address:
    PDF: ppk/28/ppk2813.pdf

    The Polish model of the executive power presupposes the existence of two pillars of the executive. The Council of Ministers is strong by the virtue of its constitutionally granted competences, whereas the strength of the President is in the direct universal election. This situation creates a zone of conflicts between the supreme organs of the state. The author presents contemporary model solutions of the system of goverment and on this background he argues for a change in the Polish Constitution and the introduction of the model solutions of the chancellor government.

  • The System of Government under the Small Constitution of 1919

    Author: Krzysztof Prokop
    Institution: University of Natural Sciences and Humanities
    Year of publication: 2018
    Source: Show
    Pages: 55-62
    DOI Address:
    PDF: ppk/46/ppk4604.pdf

    The subject of the article is to identify factors and conditions that determined the system of government of the IInd Republic of Poland under the Small Constitution of 1919. This act served as a temporary constitution until the March Constitution of 1921 came into force, which happened completely only at the end of 1922. Under the Small Constitution there has been made an attempt to introduce the system of supremacy of the parliament. It turned out to be impossible because of high authority of the head of state – Józef Piłsudski, who also served as the Commander-in-Chief. Therefore, the system of balance between the Legislative Sejm and the Chief of State was shaped in the political practice.

  • Wszystko już było, czyli dziedzictwo polskiego parlamentaryzmu XX wieku

    Author: Sławomir Patyra
    Institution: Uniwersytet Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej w Lublinie
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 75-94
    DOI Address:
    PDF: ppk/62/ppk6204.pdf

    Everything has already been done, i.e. the heritage of the Polish parliamentarism of the 20th century

    The Article is an attempt to evaluate the experiences of Polish parliamentarism in the twentieth century. The author analyzes Polish constitutional regulations and parliamentary practice, with a particular focus on the solutions adopted in the years 1919–1935, as well the impact of these regulations on the evolution of Polish parliamentarism after the Second World War, also taking into account the current political experiences. The analysis leads the author to the conclusion, that the contemporary defects of the system of parliamentary government are to a large extent the result of the historical experiences of Polish parliamentarism.

  • Dwukadencyjność organów wykonawczych w gminach – ograniczenie praw obywatelskich czy ograniczenie zjawisk patologicznych?

    Author: Beata Springer
    Institution: Uniwersytet Zielonogórski
    Author: Adam J. Jarosz
    Institution: Szkoła Główna Handlowa w Warszawie
    Year of publication: 2022
    Source: Show
    Pages: 161-172
    DOI Address:
    PDF: ppk/67/ppk6712.pdf

    Dual Tenure of Executive in Municipalities – Restriction of Civil Rights or Reduction of Pathological Phenomena?

    The phenomenon of multiterm mayors has become widespread in Poland, especially after introducing the direct election of the executive in municipalities in 2002. The direct election has given the mayors the dominant position in local politics. The way to limit it has seemed to be the limitation of number of terms in office of the municipal executive bodies to two. In the presented paper the arguments of opponents and supporters of this solution were analyzed. The analysis was made from the perspective of two levels: institutional- legal and socio-political. The aim of the analysis is to show the positives and negatives of the implemented change and the projected effects. The legal basis, its compliance with the constitution and the implications for the active and passive suffrage were analyzed. Also the results for local political systems and for local communities were examined, and it was confronted with the issue of political culture.

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