Szwajcaria

  • Ocena skuteczności szwajcarskiej ludowej inicjatywy konstytucyjnej – kilka uwag na temat rozwiązań prawnych na podstawie analizy praktyki ustrojowej

    Author: Hanna Bednarz
    E-mail: hannabednarz@yahoo.com
    Institution: Uniwersytet Jagielloński w Krakowie
    Year of publication: 2015
    Source: Show
    Pages: 77-102
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2015.04.04
    PDF: ppk/26/ppk2604.pdf

    The Swiss constitutional popular initiative is often perceived as a prime example of such institution. It is characterized by its direct type (it is directly submitted to the vote of the people), it can be presented in a form of either a draft proposal or an idea for a future amendment, it is not thematically limited and finally, the conditions for its approval are not too rigorous. For its assessment to be complete, its practical application also needs to be analyzed. Since it is only the Federal Constitution that can be amended in a way of the popular initiative, usually the amended provisions need to be subsequently concretized by lower-rang legal acts which can allow the Federal Assembly to neutralize the goals of the initiative committee. In order to assess the effectiveness of this institution, the initiatives submitted to the vote of the people and the cantons between 2001 and 2014 were analyzed, with a particular attention being paid to the accepted initiatives and the subsequent legislative process commenced to enact legal acts aiming at concretizing the constitutional provisions.

  • Konstytucja helwecka (1798) – pierwsza konstytucja Szwajcarii

    Author: Tadeusz Branecki
    E-mail: brantade@o2.pl
    Institution: Wyższa Szkoła Stosunków Międzynarodowych i Komunikacji Społecznej w Chełmie
    Year of publication: 2014
    Source: Show
    Pages: 57-71
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2014.05.03
    PDF: ppk/21/ppk2103.pdf

    The constitution of the Helvetic Republic of 1798 was the first act of constitutional rank in the history of the State. Developed by the Swiss, foreign institutional solutions separate Swiss tradition contained and to the resistance of the cantons has been imposed by force under the pressure of the French troops. For 5 years of duration, based on her settlement had taken place political experiment where a total rupture with the centuries-old model of Confederation of cantons to the State of a „One and indivisible”. The Constitution also created the first legislative authority of the Republic (the Senate and the Great Council), the Executive – Directorate and Judicial power – the Supreme Court. In addition, a set of freedoms and civil liberties.

  • PLANOWANY ANSCHLUSS SZWAJCARII W CZASIE DRUGIEJ WOJNY ŚWIATOWEJ

    Author: MAREK ŻEJMO
    Year of publication: 2015
    Source: Show
    Pages: 185-209
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/hso150210
    PDF: hso/9/hso910.pdf

    Since 1933, when Adolf Hitler became the Chancellor of Germany, to the end of World War II the independence of Switzerland was constantly threatened. Nazi propaganda from the beginning talked about the unification of the German peoples under the banners of the Third Reich. However, Swiss neutrality gave the Germans such great material benefits that it ultimately stopped them before the execution of the annexation plans.

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