Imperialism is the foundation of the Russian mentality and nation. Researchers are considering if the Russian Federation is a continuation of the imperial traditions of previous forms of Russian state. There is no unambiguous assessment whether the Russian Federation can be described as an empire. The aim of the article is to answer the question about the imperiality of modern Russia, through the use of the analysis of sources, history and social environment. The result of the analysis is a cross-sectional view of the issue of the Federation’s superpower. The imperial tradition, the ideological expansion of the Soviet Union, the Russian mentality and imperial nostalgia, and now foreign policy and the need for a strong leader, speak for recognizing Russia as a kind of empire. At the same time, economic weakness, declining influence in post-Soviet areas and the uncertain situation on the international arena prove that imperialism is only the past of the Russian nation. The evaluation of Russian imperialism depends on the perspective, because taking into account the determination to be perceived as in the time of the Russian Empire, their mentality and the fact that the “empire” is one of the few common elements for the entire nation – despite the undisputed weaknesses – The Russian Federation is a specific form of the modern empire.