threat

  • Do Holistic Visions of Nature Enhance Ethical Relations between Man and Environment?

    Author: Zbigniew Pietrzak
    Year of publication: 2016
    Source: Show
    Pages: 154-174
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2016.02.12
    PDF: kie/112/kie11212.pdf

    The visions of the natural world built by man also shape our relationship with respect to the environment. In the present paper I would like to demonstrate how these holistic ideas, like the Gaia Hypothesis, affect ethical relations with nature. Do they enhance the need to treat nature in accordance with ethics, are they ethically neutral, or do they convince us that man has no ethical obligations to the environment whatsoever? “The Gaia Hypothesis” can be ambivalent in this respect, but in the end it leaves no doubt that, even though other species do what man does, Gaia (biosphere) has a limited tolerance for negative effects of human activity. And although we are not able to annihilate the life on the Earth, we are certainly capable of destroying the conditions necessary for our subsistence.

  • Mass Migration as a Hybrid Threat? – A Legal Perspective

    Published online: 30 June 2021
    Final submission: 16 June 2021
    Printed issue: December 2021
    Author: Sascha-Dominik Dov Bachmann
    E-mail: Sascha.Bachmann@canberra.edu.au
    Institution: Canberra Law School (Australia)
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8742-0766
    Author: Anthony Paphiti
    Institution: Former officer with the UK Army Legal Services (United Kingdom)
    Source: Show
    Page no: 27
    Pages: 119-145
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy202122
    PDF: ppsy/50/ppsy202122.pdf

    Migration as a weapon sounds like a policy statement by resurgent nationalistic parties (and governments) in the West. However, politics and the human cost aside, what if an adversary (both state and non-state actor) does exploit the current global crisis of mass migration due to globalization, war, and political unrest? This article will look at the ongoing mass migration to the European Union within the wider security context of the so-called hybrid threats and/or ‘grey zone’ tactics. It looks at the various legal categories of migration as how the law can be weaponized as so-called ‘lawfare’ to undermine the existing legal frameworks distinguishing between legal and illegal migration. The authors recognize the possibility that this article will be used as an argument by the political actors involved for their nationalistic and anti-migration politics and policies. Yet, we believe that the potential of abusing the current vacuum for political gains along ideological party lines makes it necessary to provide a wider legal-security focused perspective on mass migration.

  • The concept of ‘China as a threat’ and ‘Peaceful China’ in terms of contemporary world order and hegemony of The United States

    Author: Vasylisa Bondarenko
    E-mail: vasylisa.bondarenko@gmail.com
    Institution: National University of Kyiv
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4100-8554
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 13-23
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/rop2021201
    PDF: rop/16/rop1601.pdf

    The relationship between the two countries has been a complex and diverse subject of investigation and contemplation. The interconnection between the two countries can be described by the following central notions, such as economic cooperation, rivalry in terms of status acquisition of global hegemonic power, particularly in the Pacific region and beyond controversy mutual suspicion over each other’s intentions. Therefore, it is clearly justified that each state has elaborated and adopted a specific manner of conduct and attitude regarding each other as a potential adversary but has meanwhile maintained an extremely strong economic partnership. It is fair to state, that the relationship between both countries has been described by multiple world leaders and academics as the world’s most significant bilateral relationship of the 21st century. Due to the fact that Chinese economy has started to develop increasingly fast and PRC has strengthened its positions on the world’s arena, the United States started to perceive the Middle Kingdom as a direct threat to the established world order in its drive for regional hegemony in East Asia now as well as future aspirant for global supremacy. Beijing, by contrast rejects these notions, and continues its assertive policies and its quest for allies.

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