time

  • Planned Future, Exciting Present, and Positive Memories – Attitudes to Time Among Students from Polish-Belarusian Borderland

    Author: Katarzyna Borawska-Kalbarczyk
    E-mail: borawska@uwb.edu.pl
    Institution: University of Białystok
    Author: Bożena Tołwińska
    E-mail: ztt@wp.pl
    Institution: University of Białystok
    Author: Alicja Korzeniecka-Bondar
    E-mail: alibon@uwb.edu.pl
    Institution: University of Białystok
    Year of publication: 2017
    Source: Show
    Pages: 209-224
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2017.04.15
    PDF: kie/118/kie11815.pdf

    The paper presents the results of quantitative research using the diagnostic poll method, carried out as part of an international project which involved 440 teacher students from the Polish-Belarusian borderland. The research focused on self-assessed level of information management, team work skills, and recognition of one’s own time perspective. The text only refers to one aspect of the competence, i.e., attitude to time. The findings show that the participants function in three temporal dimensions. The majority of the respondents are future-oriented. More than half of them sometimes waste time doing something meaningless. The vast majority of the students act upon the belief that what will happen to them in the future only depends on their effort, but many also declare a fatalistic attitude to life and the belief they have made wrong decisions in the past. In the article, we suggest the need to equip young people with instruments allowing them to create themselves, their lives and the world around them in the context of the foresight concept.

  • Questions important now like never before. Asymmetry of war or of warfare?

    Author: Jarosław Piątek
    E-mail: jarekpiatek@wp.pl
    Institution: University of Szczecin
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4754-3371
    Year of publication: 2018
    Source: Show
    Pages: 44-58
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/rop201803
    PDF: rop/2018/rop201803.pdf

    Asymmetry of warfare, or more often asymmetric warfare, is an issue often referred to in descriptions of contemporary political and military relations affecting the state. It is even presented as an entity threatened by these hostilities. Meanwhile, these acts are a form of an armed conflict in which opposing sides have different military potentials. One of the potentials is the power of the state. We must wonder then how the state uses it. Is it not an entity who uses it in a way disproportionate to the situation of conflict? The paper argues that a contemporary state is not without sin and it is not just that it is not able to protect its interests from asymmetric threats. Warfare still is, which many forget, the basis for hostilities (war). In the author’s understanding (erroneous perhaps?) asymmetry does not only occur at the level of war, but it also happens in its key dimension – warfare. It has emerged not only through the change in the status of the fighting party, but also through the time of warfare and using the warfare terrain.

  • Calculation of Time Limits Resulting from the Constitution of the Republic of Poland from April 2, 1997 (Selected Issues)

    Author: Robert Orłowski
    E-mail: robert.orlowski@poczta.umcs.lublin.pl
    Institution: Maria Curie-Skłodowska University in Lublin
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8692-8739
    Year of publication: 2019
    Source: Show
    Pages: 315-328
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2019.06.23
    PDF: ppk/52/ppk5223.pdf

    Time limits are a normative approach to time, the passing of time is then a legal event (an element of a legal event). The provisions of the 1997 Constitution repeatedly use different types of time limits, but do not indicate how they are calculated. It seems that the time limits specified in days, months and years should be calculated according to computatio civilis, thus taking into account certain conventional rules. Such a time limit ends at the end of the last day of the time limit, but usually starts at the beginning of the day following the day the event, with which the legal provision relates the beginning of the time limit, occurred. Time limits determined using shorter time units (e.g. in hours) should be calculated according to computatio naturalis, i.e. strictly from one moment to another. Such conclusions can be reached using various methods of interpretation, but the most appropriate seems to be the use of analogy from the law.

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