• Azerbaijan and the Security Complex of The South Caucasus

    Author: Kseniia Pashaieva
    E-mail: kseniya.p.2014@gmail.com
    Institution: Odessa I. I. Mechnikov National University,
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002- 2576-6403
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 13-29
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/rop2020101
    PDF: rop/11/rop1101.pdf

    This article reviews the academic literature on the regional security complex of the South Caucasus, which has been drawing the attention of the academic community for a long time. The paper aims to examine the security dynamics in the South Caucasus with a focus on Azerbaijan and a way in which domestic security is interconnected and linked to the region`s neighborhood and global arena. The conceptual framework for the paper is the regional security complex theory, elaborated by Barry Buzan and Ole Wæver. South Caucasus is an unstable region with several secessionist conflicts and interstate wars, exposed to the influence of its neighbors, which shape the regional security environment. Besides, the region is riven by geopolitical fractures as regional states have various foreign policy orientations, which hampers the resolution of regional conflicts and complicates cooperation. The research is carried at three levels of analysis - the domestic level, reviewing internal vulnerabilities and state to state relations, interregional level, examining dynamics between regional and neighboring states, and the last level - global, considering the interplay between regional and the world-leading powers. Correspondingly, sections of the paper study internal challenges and threats of the regional states, examine relations between Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, and their neighborhood - Turkey, Iran, Russia, as well as global powers - the EU and the US to analyze similar and conflicting interests and patterns of influence. The article concludes that the South Caucasus security environment is unstable, hampered by the failure of democratic transformation and unresolved conflicts, namely Nagorno-Karabakh, which Russia uses as a tool to keep Caucasian states in a sphere of its influence. It is evident that Azerbaijan plays a vital role in the production and transit of hydrocarbons from the Caspian region to Europe. Therefore, it is crucial to eliminate threats coming from the region and to ensure the security of energy infrastructure, carrying energy resources westwards.

  • Prezydent w systemie politycznym Turcji

    Author: Dominika Liszkowska
    Institution: Politechnika Koszalińska
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 234-250
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2021.69.14
    PDF: apsp/69/apsp6914.pdf

    W niniejszym artykule przedstawiono główne cechy tureckiego modelu systemu prezydenckiego, a także historyczne uwarunkowania pozycji prezydenta w strukturze organów państwa w Turcji. Praca składa się z trzech części. W pierwszej z nich omówione zostały podstawy parlamentaryzmu, co jest kluczową kwestią dla ukazania kształtu tureckiego systemu przed reformą. Kolejnym zagadnieniem omawianym w tej części artykułu jest proces ewolucji prezydentury od pierwszych lat powstania Republiki do zmian wprowadzonych po wyborach prezydenckich i parlamentarnych w 2018 r. W drugiej części pracy wskazano uwarunkowania zmiany systemowej. Wreszcie w ostatniej dokonano analizy nowego systemu, określanego jako prezydencjalizm „w stylu tureckim”, i ukazano jego charakterystyczne cechy.

  • Polityka zagraniczna Turcji - uwarunkowania wewnętrzne obiektywne

    Author: Michał Dahl
    E-mail: dahl.michal@gmail.com
    Institution: Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu
    Year of publication: 2017
    Source: Show
    Pages: 17-40
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/so2017102
    PDF: so/11/so1102.pdf

    Turkish foreign policy – internal objective determinants

    The purpose of the article was to present selected conditions of the foreign policy of the Republic of Turkey, formulated on the basis of a scheme of factors shaping the foreign policy of the state, developed by R. Zięba. The analyzed group of determinants was limited to the objective internal conditions, therefore factors such as: the geographical environment of the state, potential of the population, economic potential and the socio-political system. Using the analysis of legal acts, reports of research institutes, statistical data and literature on the subject, the Author of the work showed the importance of the above-mentioned internal determinants on the shaping of directions of Turkish foreign policy.

  • Sytuacja Kościoła ortodoksyjnego w Turcji w 1949 roku

    Author: Ahmet Burak
    E-mail: ahmet83burak@gmail.com
    Institution: Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu
    Year of publication: 2017
    Source: Show
    Pages: 148-156
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/so2017107
    PDF: so/11/so1107.pdf

    The situation of the Orthodox Church in Turkey in 1949

    Athenagoras I (born Aristocles Matthew Spyrou, 1886–1972), who became the new Patriarch of the Orthodox Church in Turkey in 1949, which bears the name of the Patriarchate Fener. First and foremost, however, it must be noted that for the first time in the history of the Patriarchate Fener, Athenagoras I was elected abroad to the Patriarch, who was not a citizen of Turkey. The article analyzed the situation of the Orthodox Church in Turkey, after the change of power in this organization in 1949.

  • The Foreign Policy of Turkey – between Transatlanticism and Orientalism

    Author: Jakub Wódka
    Institution: Polish Academy of Sciences
    Year of publication: 2014
    Source: Show
    Pages: 89-100
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2014.44.05
    PDF: apsp/44/apsp4405.pdf

    The article explores the transformation which the Turkish foreign policy has been undergoing in the last decade since the post-Islamist Justice and Development Party had come to power. Whereas in the cold-war era Turkey concentrated its foreign policy on bolstering the alliance with the United States and on efforts to join the European Communities, last couple of years have seen the country diversify its international engagement. Turkey has been using ‘new’ instruments, such as softpower, to build up its regional status. Yet, the ambitious foreign policy is constrained by the regional developments, the Arab Spring turmoil being the prime example.

  • Nurses’ Lifelong-Learning Tendencies and Their Attitudes Toward Distance Education: A Sample of Turkey

    Author: Emine Şenyuva
    E-mail: esenyuva@istanbul.edu.tr
    Institution: Istanbul University Florence Nightingale Nursing Faculty
    Author: Hülya Kaya
    Institution: Istanbul University Florence Nightingale Nursing Faculty
    Year of publication: 2014
    Source: Show
    Pages: 17-29
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/tner.
    PDF: tner/201402/tner3601.pdf

    Little is known about nurses’ viewpoints, experience, and opinions regarding this issue even though lifelong learning and distance education are of great importance in nursing. It is important to have knowledge about nurses’ lifelong-learning tendencies and attitudes toward distance education when structuring related education programmes. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between nurses’ lifelong-learning tendencies and their attitudes toward distance education. This is a descriptive research design with a stratified random sample. The sample included 417 nurses. The Lifelong-Learning Tendencies Scale and the Distance Education Attitude Scale were used to collect data. SPSS for Windows 16.0 was used for statistical analysis. Our results show that nurses do not tend to engage in lifelong learning, and they experience uncertainty in their attitudes toward distance education. We found a weak negative correlation between lifelong-learning tendencies and attitudes toward distance education. Continuing education programmes should be designed to improve and support nurses’ attitudes toward lifelong learning and distance education. Distance education supports nurses’ lifelong learning by updating their post-graduation knowledge improving comprehension about developments that affect and consciously broaden their viewpoint and intellectual level. Continuing education programmes to enhance nurses’ personal and professional development should be designed to improve their attitudes toward lifelong learning and distance education.

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