USA

  • The Controversy between the United States of America and Brazil on Soluble Coffee. An Example of (another) Blemish on the Alliance for Progress?

    Author: Mateusz R. Chudziak
    Institution: Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń (Poland)
    Year of publication: 2014
    Source: Show
    Pages: 331–347
    DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2014019
    PDF: ppsy/43/ppsy2014019.pdf

    The paper refers to a diplomatic controversy between Brazil and the United States that took place in the late sixties of the 20th century. The reason of the dispute layed in a fact of exporting processed soluble coffee by Brazil to the USA at very competitive prices. The US processors didn’t have access to law grade coffees, which served as a raw material to fabrication of soluble powder. The US processors forced the Department of State to counteract that situation. As a result the USA government blamed Brazil of discriminatory trade practices and violating free trade. The controversy was put under the consideration of the International Coffee Organization. The proceedings coincided with the twilight of the American aid programme for Latin America called Alliance for Progress. The controversy was an instance of growing suspicions and deteriorating relations between Latin America and the USA, which changed its foreign policy in that region from supporting development of democracy in the continent toward backing up military regimes.

  • International Security in Strategic Concepts of Powers (USA and Russia) – an Analysis Attempt

    Author: Donat Mierzejewski
    Year of publication: 2009
    Source: Show
    Pages: 221-232
    DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2009017
    PDF: ppsy/38/ppsy2009017.pdf

    An essential element of international security policy shaping are documents of strategic or doctrinal character. They define the main assumptions of state security politics in the context of changes of global character. Undoubtedly this process is influenced by strategic concepts of two world powers: the USA and Russian Federation, both in the cold war past as well as now – main agents and creators of world security policy. this article will analyze the National Security Strategy of the USA, the Foreign Policy Concept of the Russian Federation, the National Security Strategy of the Russian Federation and the War Doctrine of the Russian Federation.

  • Dokąd zmierza Ukraina

    Author: Zbigniew Wiktor
    E-mail: z.wiktor@gazeta.pl
    Institution: emerytowany profesor Uniwersytetu Wrocławskiego
    Year of publication: 2017
    Source: Show
    Pages: 116-150
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/so2017207
    PDF: so/12/so1207.pdf

    Where is Ukraine going

    The main thesis of article is the analyse of the socio-economic and national-politic situation of contemporary Ukraine, especially after it declared independence. The economy in the time 1991–2016 collapsed especially in the comparison to the Soviet time. It’s demonstrates by the deep fall of the industrial and agricultural production, high rate of deindustralization, the growth of unemployment and the emigration to west countries and Russia. The Ukrainian state and economy are in the deep crisis and their can’t to solve the basic internal and international problems and contradictions of the country. On the east border to Russia was broke the half open war, Crimea declared independence and joined to Russian Federation, Donetsk and Lugansk declared secession. The leading Ukrainian compradors wait the support from USA, NATO, UE, but the situation of Ukrainian state is dramatical and it’s near the category failure state, the perspective of the accession of Ukraine to EU is very long.

  • Konstytucyjność aktów ceremonialnego deizmu w świetle orzecznictwa sądów USA

    Author: Grzegorz Maroń
    E-mail: grzegorzmaron@op.pl
    Institution: Uniwersytet Rzeszowski
    Year of publication: 2017
    Source: Show
    Pages: 31-51
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2017.03.02
    PDF: ppk/37/ppk3702.pdf

    The paper deals with the notion of ceremonial deism, as it is understood in U.S. case law and jurisprudence. This term describes on kind of the government’s acts of symbolic references to God or religion, for example words „under God” in Pledge of Allegiance or the national motto – „In God We Trust”. American courts hold that particular forms of ceremonial deism are in accordance with the Establishment Clause due to their lack of a religious meaning (secularization thesis), nonsectarian nature, secular aims, historicity, ubiquity and non-controversiality. In the Author’s view, the above mentioned understanding of ceremonial deism is not fully proper. He calls on the rejection of secularization thesis and premise of non-sectarian nature. According to him, the public authorities’ acts of religious references are compliant with the Constitution when they perform significant secular aims, they do not have a devotional character and they constitute a testimony to the history and tradition of a particular country and its citizens. The criteria of ubiquity and non-controversiality may, due to its highly evaluative and subjective character, serve only a supportive role within the verification of the legality of a prima facie religious expression acts of the state. Theory of ceremonial deism, being understood properly, may constitute a valuable tool to evaluate the constitutionality of the public authority’s actions, also outside the United States.

  • Znaczenie irańskiej opozycji antyreżimowej dla polityki zagranicznej Baracka Obamy

    Author: Maciej Milczanowski
    Institution: Wyższa Szkoła Informatyki i Zarządzania w Rzeszowie
    Year of publication: 2016
    Source: Show
    Pages: 149–157
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2016.50.09
    PDF: apsp/50/apsp5009.pdf

    Od 1979 roku reżim irański jest w zasadniczym konfl ikcie ze światem Zachodu, a szczególnie z USA i Wielką Brytanią oraz Izraelem. W tak długim okresie dochodziło do okresowych zmian, z którymi administracja USA wiązała pewne nadzieje. Niemniej jednak, mimo chwilowych okresów pozornej odwilży w stosunkach dwustronnych, za każdym razem następował powrót do tradycyjnej wrogości między Islamską Republiką Iranu a USA. Jednocześnie społeczeństwo irańskie jest narażone na nieustanne represje ze strony władz. Zachodzi więc zasadnicze pytanie, w jaki sposób i czy w ogóle Zachód, a przede wszystkim USA jako mocarstwo globalne, o największym potencjale militarno-operacyjnym pozwalającym na oddziaływanie w każdym rejonie świata, powinny reagować na sytuację i wydarzenia w Iranie.
    Celem artykułu jest poddanie analizie charakteru oraz sposobów działania najważniejszych irańskich grup opozycyjnych, a także ich znaczenia dla programu politycznego USA zawartego w tzw. doktrynie Obamy (2009). Analiza najważniejszych grup opozycyjnych pozwoli na określenie stopnia możliwej ich współpracy z USA, jak i ich potencjału do sprawowania władzy w Iranie w sposób jak najbardziej demokratyczny.

  • Koniec specjalnych relacji Stanów Zjednoczonych z Arabią Saudyjską?

    Author: Adam Gwiazda
    Institution: Uniwersytet Kazimierza Wielkiego w Bydgoszczy
    Year of publication: 2016
    Source: Show
    Pages: 96-114
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/siip201606
    PDF: siip/15/siip1506.pdf

    The end of special relationships between the U.S. and Saudi Arabia?

    The Saudi special relationships with the U.S., unlike that of the U.S. with Israel, are mutually beneficial. Saudi Arabia sells about 10 million barrels of oil a day and all those transactions are denominated in American dollars, which helps that currency to perform the role of the currency of account (world, s currency) and has been of crucial help to the American ambition to dominate the global economy. On the other hand the United States did its part to uphold the relationship be granting the security to Saudi Arabia and other Gulf oil states. This was demonstrated for example in 1990 during Iraqi attack on Kuwait, that also menaced Saudi Arabia. At that time the U.S. deployed 400,000 troops in Saudi Arabia and expelled Iraqi troops from Kuwait. The priority of American foreign policy in that region has been to keep Gulf oil in friendly hands. Since the increase of the production of shale oil in the United States that priority has been less important. Another factor which has exerted an influence on the nature of the U.S.-Saudi relationship was the signing the permanent agreement with Iran in July 2015 on the limitation of the Iranian nuclear program and normalization of political-economic relations with the West. This has led to further worsening of the U.S.-Saudi Arabia alliance which has always been like a ”marriage of convenience” where behind the façade of friendship and harmony there is cold calculation of benefi ts and losses. That alliance will last as long as the potential benefi ts will still be bigger than possible losses.

  • The Songun Doctrine as the Most Important Factor of Internal and International Policy of North Korea

    Author: Andrzej Purat
    Institution: Kazimierz Wielki University in Bydgoszcz
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8804-5657
    Author: Paweł Bielicki
    Institution: Kazimierz Wielki University in Bydgoszcz
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5015-6869
    Year of publication: 2018
    Source: Show
    Pages: 41-58
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2018.60.03
    PDF: apsp/60/apsp6003.pdf

    The subject of our interest is to present the significance of the Songun doctrine (Military First) in the North Korea’s internal and international politics. At the beginning, we intend to trace the concept of the Juche ideology and its essential implications for the role of the army in a country ruled by the Kim dynasty since the end of World War II. In the remainder of this study, we would like to characterize the theoretical and explanatory aspects of the Songun doctrine, focusing in particular on reviewing of its principles in terms of politics, economy, culture and propaganda aspects. In the context of the current situation in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, an important role is played by the Byungjin doctrine, initiated by the country’s leader Kim Jong-un and mentioned in our article, which in the future can contribute to the beginning of reforms in Korea’s economy. In summary, we presented forecasts for the future and our attempt to answer the question whether in the current international situation the Songun doctrine will be implemented in its present form.

  • Pomiędzy izolacjonizmem i globalizacją z chińską charakterystyką: stosunki USA–ChRL w pierwszym roku prezydentury Donalda Trumpa

    Author: Bartosz Kowalski
    Institution: Uniwersytet Łódzki
    Year of publication: 2019
    Source: Show
    Pages: 23-38
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2019.61.02
    PDF: apsp/61/apsp6102.pdf

    Stosunki amerykańsko-chińskie w pierwszym roku prezydentury Donalda Trumpa były okresem gwałtownego przewartościowania polityki Waszyngtonu wobec Pekinu. Protekcjonistyczne hasło „America First” kontrastowało wyraźnie z próbą narzucania przez Chińską Republikę Ludową globalnej narracji otwartości gospodarczej, a wycofywanie się Stanów Zjednoczonych z porozumień wielostronnych zaczęły dyskontować władze Chin, wysuwając własne projekty multilateralne. W porównaniu z prezydenturą Baracka Obamy, postulującego „zwrot ku Azji” (pivot to Asia), pierwszych dwanaście miesięcy rządów jego następcy w Białym Domu charakteryzowała wyraźna zmiana priorytetów w polityce wobec Chin w oparciu o konfrontacyjną retorykę i rosnącą asertywność w kwestiach gospodarczych.

  • A “New” Middle East? Implications for Israel’s Security

    Author: Agnieszka Bryc
    Institution: Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń
    Year of publication: 2019
    Source: Show
    Pages: 7-23
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2019.64.01
    PDF: apsp/64/apsp6401.pdf

    The turbulent changes in the Middle East which were seen at the very beginning as good news for Israel, at the end of the day became more ambiguous. The Arab Spring and then the war in Syria that had erupted along with massive social protests ended up with regime changes, but what was crucial, the primary success of the Arab awakening was captured by Islamist movements. The changes in the Middle East were even deeper due to at least two factors – Russia „coming into” and the United States „going out” of the region. These new regional circumstances combined with the geopolitical shift in the Middle East and a crumbling American supervision made Israel conclude that its security has become more complex and the U.S has no more been the only significant great power player in the region. Hence the difficult political and military situation around Israel has created a need to adapt to security challenges and simultaneously, to take political opportunities. The goal of this paper is to highlight basic ramifications for Israeli security and diplomacy of the American and Russian factors in the current Middle East politics. The key questions are: How to secure Israeli interests in these new circumstances? How to assess, on the one hand, the risk of the ongoing decline of American interests in the region and, on the other hand, the complexity of the Russian strategy in the Middle East? Finally, whether Israel might be able to gain recognition by the Arab world, not to mention to keep its strategic domination in the region which is already being challenged by the Islamic Republic of Iran and its nuclear ambitions.

  • Permanent Presence? USA in the Security Policy of the Republic of Poland

    Author: Jarosław J. Piątek
    E-mail: jarekpiatek@wp.pl
    Institution: Institute of Political Science and European Studies
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4754-3371
    Year of publication: 2019
    Source: Show
    Pages: 92-102
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/rop201906
    PDF: rop/2019/rop201906.pdf

    The consequence of systemic and political changes in Poland involved reorientation of Polish policy in terms of perceiving security. It was reflected in newly defined policy directions which expression involved a search for the new guarantees of security. The problem of ensuring state security in new geopolitical conditions is expressed in the adopted hierarchy of priorities of implementation of the Polish national interest. The exercise of the specified policy priorities means Poland’s obtaining a solid security basis. The Polish Army, the armed forces of the Republic of Poland, has become an element of NATO’s broad security system. The implementation of the policy in this regard by the Polish government has recently been more and more unidimensional. Only cooperation with the USA is at the target of the Polish security policy. Issues related to its costs remain outside its determinants. There is no reflection on being dependent on another egoistic player.

  • Druga poprawka do konstytucji USA. Rys historyczny, cele i założenia

    Author: Piotr Czeczot
    E-mail: piotr.czeczot@o2.pl
    Institution: Uniwersytet w Białymstoku
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0137-8526
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 443-459
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2020.04.24
    PDF: ppk/56/ppk5624.pdf

    Second Amendment to the American Constitution. Genesis, Targets and Objectives

    The author will try to trace the genesis of the Second Amendment in the context of the American constitution process and the influence of other legal acts on the final content of the provision in question. What’s more the author will analyze the ideas that accompanied the Founding Fathers and which led to the creation of the United States Constitution. The author will analyze the objectives of the Second Amendment and the ideological assumptions that underpin it, including the issue of enabling citizens personal defense and the protection of private property, as well as the issue of guaranteeing citizens an effective tool to resist the state apparatus as a guarantee of citizens’ freedom as well as to prevent possible tyranny. Finally, the author will refer to the issue of culture of gun ownership in the USA and Poland.

Message to:

 

 

© 2017 Adam Marszałek Publishing House. All rights reserved.

Projekt i wykonanie Pollyart