ustawa

  • Inspiracja ustawodawcza w polskim procesie legislacyjnym

    Author: Klaudia Zawiślak
    Institution: Polska Akademia Nauk
    Year of publication: 2017
    Source: Show
    Pages: 45-65
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2017.04.03
    PDF: ppk/38/ppk3803.pdf

    The institution of legislative initiative is a key element of the legislative process, because it starts legislative works. This concept has been widely discussed in the doctrine of constitutional law and it is a reason why in this article has been paid special attention to the pre-legislative stage. An attempt was made to distinguish the concept of the legislative inspiration from the legislative initiative. Basic features of a legislative initiative have been identified on the basis of constitutional provisions. Entities and ways to inspire the relevant bodies (which are able to bring a draft of the bill to the Sejm) have been determined under the provisions of various laws.

  • Instytucja Pełnomocnego Rzecznika ds. Praw Człowieka w Turkmenistanie – wymiar normatywny i praktyka

    Author: Jerzy Szukalski
    Institution: Wyższa Szkoła Stosunków Międzynarodowych i Komunikacji Społecznej w Chełmie
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9960-7571
    Year of publication: 2019
    Source: Show
    Pages: 223-244
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2019.02.13
    PDF: ppk/48/ppk4813.pdf

    The article presents the institution of the Commissioner for Human Rights in Turkmenistan, also officially referred to as the Ombudsman of Turkmenistan. The institution of Ombudsman was established in the Constitution of Turkmenistan in a new editing of 14 September 2016, and detailed regulations were included in the Law of 23 November 2016 “On Ombudsman”. Statutory regulations concerning the Ombudsman generally meet the standards of similar acts being in force in democratic countries. However, in the reality of the authoritarian system of Turkmenistan, where fundamental human rights are violated, the new institution is not able to perform the functions for which it was established. The evidence is the Ombudsman’s first report for 2017, which clearly lacks cases relating to human rights of the first generation. As a matter of fact, until democratic changes take place in Turkmenistan, as well as change in the policy of the state authorities in their approach to the protection of individual rights and freedoms, the institution of the Ombudsman will remain a facade institution.

  • Relativism in the Language of Law (on the Example of Legal Texts Concerning the Constitutionally Unregulated Human-Animal Relationship)

    Author: Ewa Oronowicz-Kida
    Institution: University of Rzeszów
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7646-2023
    Author: Justyna Mika
    Institution: University of Rzeszów
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8866-4738
    Author: Agnieszka Myszka
    Institution: University of Rzeszów
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1324-7948
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 407-418
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2021.06.32
    PDF: ppk/64/ppk6432.pdf

    The article covers the issue of anthropocentrically conditioned relativism characterizing the attitude of humans toward animals. The relativity of good and evil in this respect was viewed through the prism of selected legal texts. Linguistic examples were indicated (various parts of speech, expressions, substitutions, collocations) attesting to cases of normative consent to the violation of animal welfare, resulting, as it may be assumed, from the subject approach to them and subordinating human welfare to them. The need to give the issue of animal protection a constitutional rank was also expressed.

  • Kwestia uzupełnienia ustawy ratyfikacyjnej o dodatkowe treści (art. 89 Konstytucji RP)

    Author: Agnieszka Bień-Kacała
    Institution: Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9559-3130
    Author: Wojciech Włoch
    Institution: Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0807-5130
    Year of publication: 2022
    Source: Show
    Pages: 31-43
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2022.01.02
    PDF: ppk/65/ppk6502.pdf

    The Issue of Supplementing the Ratification Act with Additional Content (art. 89 of the Polish Constitution)

    The authors point to arguments of legal interpretation of the Constitution that would justify the possibility of including additional provisions in the statute agreeing to ratify the international agreement (Article 89(1) of the Polish Constitution). A condition for such an extension would be the direct link between the additional content and the implementation of the international agreement and the possibility of adopting additional content in the ordinary legislative procedure. Such provisions could not violate the provisions of the Polish Constitution. The authors also point to non-legal arguments that could justify such action by the legislature in a particular situation. However, they favour the uniqueness of such a solution and its embedding in a specific systemic context.

  • Normatywne gwarancje wolności zrzeszania się w partie polityczne w Kazachstanie

    Author: Jerzy Szukalski
    Institution: Uniwersytet Przyrodniczo-Humanistyczny w Siedlcach
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9960-7571
    Year of publication: 2022
    Source: Show
    Pages: 201-213
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2022.01.15
    PDF: ppk/65/ppk6515.pdf

    Normative Guarantees of the Freedom of Association in Political Parties in Kazakhstan

    The subject of the study is the problem of freedom of association in political parties in Kazakhstan from the normative perspective. The analysis of national regulations concerning the guarantee of political pluralism and determining the principles for the creation and operation of political parties in Kazakhstan indicates for series transgressions and contradictions with international obligations accepted by them at the area freedom of association. The current law on political parties in this country contains very restrictive provisions. It lacks provisions that would guarantee the access of political parties to the mass media and the free organization of meetings and demonstrations. The law also prohibits the creation of religious, national and ethnic political parties.

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