ustawa

  • Inspiracja ustawodawcza w polskim procesie legislacyjnym

    Author: Klaudia Zawiślak
    E-mail: zawislak@gmail.com
    Institution: Polska Akademia Nauk
    Year of publication: 2017
    Source: Show
    Pages: 45-65
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2017.04.03
    PDF: ppk/38/ppk3803.pdf

    The institution of legislative initiative is a key element of the legislative process, because it starts legislative works. This concept has been widely discussed in the doctrine of constitutional law and it is a reason why in this article has been paid special attention to the pre-legislative stage. An attempt was made to distinguish the concept of the legislative inspiration from the legislative initiative. Basic features of a legislative initiative have been identified on the basis of constitutional provisions. Entities and ways to inspire the relevant bodies (which are able to bring a draft of the bill to the Sejm) have been determined under the provisions of various laws.

  • Instytucja Pełnomocnego Rzecznika ds. Praw Człowieka w Turkmenistanie – wymiar normatywny i praktyka

    Author: Jerzy Szukalski
    E-mail: jerzy.szukalski@onet.eu
    Institution: Wyższa Szkoła Stosunków Międzynarodowych i Komunikacji Społecznej w Chełmie
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9960-7571
    Year of publication: 2019
    Source: Show
    Pages: 223-244
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2019.02.13
    PDF: ppk/48/ppk4813.pdf

    The article presents the institution of the Commissioner for Human Rights in Turkmenistan, also officially referred to as the Ombudsman of Turkmenistan. The institution of Ombudsman was established in the Constitution of Turkmenistan in a new editing of 14 September 2016, and detailed regulations were included in the Law of 23 November 2016 “On Ombudsman”. Statutory regulations concerning the Ombudsman generally meet the standards of similar acts being in force in democratic countries. However, in the reality of the authoritarian system of Turkmenistan, where fundamental human rights are violated, the new institution is not able to perform the functions for which it was established. The evidence is the Ombudsman’s first report for 2017, which clearly lacks cases relating to human rights of the first generation. As a matter of fact, until democratic changes take place in Turkmenistan, as well as change in the policy of the state authorities in their approach to the protection of individual rights and freedoms, the institution of the Ombudsman will remain a facade institution.

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