The presented publication is an attempt to determine, from the perspective of the financial and constitutional law at the same time, the basic place and role that the budget act has in the political system of the Republic of Poland. The budget act is one of the most important programme documents of the state, on the basis of which the government manages the financial economy in a large measure. The Cabinet of the Republic of Poland, together with its ministers, is politically responsible for drawing up the budget bill, submitting it to the Sejm promptly and – after the budget year commences – executing the regulations after passing the bill, and finally reporting on how the regulations were executed. Difficulties and doubts that arise when concerning the budget procedure and carrying out the duty of the Cabinet to submit the budget bill in a given time limit are due to the fact that this deadline coincides with the parliamentary election, which could cause a possible change in the line-up in politics and, consequently, in the government. The existing legislature does not entirely eliminate (however, through the so-called emergency procedures, it does considerably minimise the risk of) a situation when, although the budget year commences, neither the state budget nor its normatively acceptable substitute is passed. It seems advisable to implement constitutional and statutory regulations that would be the solution to the lack of the normative fundamentals to carry out the financial policy of the state and eliminate the situation of the so-called budget void.