ustrój

  • Informal Constitutional Change. The Case of Poland

    Author: Agnieszka Bień-Kacała
    E-mail: abien@umk.pl
    Institution: Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń
    Year of publication: 2017
    Source: Show
    Pages: 199-218
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2017.06.13
    PDF: ppk/40/ppk4013.pdf

    This article describes the theoretical concept of constitutional change. The cases of constitutional changes and amendments since 1989 have been analyzed in the text. The historical approach is used as a background for the current Polish events conceptualization.
    The theories formulated by Y. Raznai, R. Albert, B. Ackermann, S. Griffin, D. Landau are applied for purpose of the analysis. The authors consider the problems of: constitutional change, constitutional amendment and dismemberment, constitutional moment, as well as a kind of constitutionalism, which is connected to an abuse of power by the parliamentary majority (illiberal constitutionalism).
    This paper analyses following issues: the conceptualization of constitutional amendment procedure and constitutional change in formal and informal ways as well as the constitutional moment. Moreover, the Polish academia opinions on the amendment and change are presented. Eventually, the identification of the recent Polish systemic events from a theoretical perspective and the summary of the research are provided.
    The assessment of current events takes into account the historical background – the transformation started in 1989 and ended with the adoption of the 1997 Constitution. The conclusion is connected to identification of the constitutional moments which legitimize or not the transformation of the system.

  • Myśl polityczna polskiego konspiracyjnego ruchu narodowego w czasie II wojny światowej

    Author: mgr Piotr Kurzawa
    Institution: Uniwersytet Wrocławski
    Year of publication: 2017
    Source: Show
    Pages: 324-354
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/siip201716
    PDF: siip/16/siip1616.pdf

    Political thought of polish underground national movement during World War II

    Nationalists were one of the numerous Polish political movements during World War II. Actively engaging in the fight against the occupying forces, they suffered heavy losses, but does not prevent them in the creation of significant heritage in the field of political thought. The aim of the article is to present the political thought of Polish national movement during the Second World War. Historical, qualitative and comparative methods were used. The whole has been divided into several parts,, in which author examines the with issues of political thought as: Polish war aims, vision of state borders, ratio to national minorities, vision of the political system, economic vision, vision of national security, education and upbringing. The whole article has to show how rich the heritage of those generations.

  • Geneza republikańskiej głowy państwa w Polsce

    Author: Ryszard Balicki
    E-mail: balicki@prawo.uni.wroc.pl
    Institution: Uniwersytet Wrocławski
    Year of publication: 2016
    Source: Show
    Pages: 11-22
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2016.05.01
    PDF: ppk/33/ppk3301.pdf

    Artykuł przedstawia genezę republikańskiej głowy państwa w Polsce po I wojnie światowej (do uchwalenia Konstytucji marcowej). Był to szczególnie istotny moment, w którym dokonał się wybór formy ustrojowej odbudowywanego państwa polskiego. Autor zwraca uwagę na istotny związek dziejących się w czasie I wojny światowej wydarzeń historycznych, w tym zwłaszcza zmian ustrojowych zachodzących w państwach zaborczych na decyzję o wyborze republikańskiej drogi ustrojowej.

  • Konstytucja helwecka (1798) – pierwsza konstytucja Szwajcarii

    Author: Tadeusz Branecki
    E-mail: brantade@o2.pl
    Institution: Wyższa Szkoła Stosunków Międzynarodowych i Komunikacji Społecznej w Chełmie
    Year of publication: 2014
    Source: Show
    Pages: 57-71
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2014.05.03
    PDF: ppk/21/ppk2103.pdf

    The constitution of the Helvetic Republic of 1798 was the first act of constitutional rank in the history of the State. Developed by the Swiss, foreign institutional solutions separate Swiss tradition contained and to the resistance of the cantons has been imposed by force under the pressure of the French troops. For 5 years of duration, based on her settlement had taken place political experiment where a total rupture with the centuries-old model of Confederation of cantons to the State of a „One and indivisible”. The Constitution also created the first legislative authority of the Republic (the Senate and the Great Council), the Executive – Directorate and Judicial power – the Supreme Court. In addition, a set of freedoms and civil liberties.

  • Monarcha brytyjski jako gwarant konstytucyjnych podstaw ustroju

    Author: Tomasz Wieciech
    Institution: Uniwersytet Jagielloński
    Year of publication: 2011
    Source: Show
    Pages: 81-94
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2011.04.04
    PDF: ppk/08/ppk804.pdf

    Under unwritten constitution, part of which are constitutional conventions courts are unable to guarantee obedience to constitutional rules and values. In United Kingdom it is therefore the monarch who stands as a custodian of the constitution. Royal prerogatives that are normally exercised only on advice of responsible ministers can be used to protect constitution. The most important are so-called reserve powers to dismiss prime minister and other ministers, to dissolve parliament and to give royal assent. The Monarch is able to successfully perform this function despite the want of democratic legitimacy but he should always be cautious and act only if he is perfectly positive that his intervention is absolutely necessary. He would therefore be entitled to intervene only in a dire emergency if political actors stood against the fundamental rules of parliamentary democracy, responsible government and sovereignty of the people.

  • Wpływ unii personalnej z Saksonią na funkcjonowanie systemu parlamentarnego Rzeczypospolitej Obojga Narodów

    Author: Michał Zwierzykowski
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6419-3222
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 98-111
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/hso200106
    PDF: hso/24/hso2406.pdf

    This article attempts to provide answers to several research questions related to the consequences of representatives of the House of Wettin ruling the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth to the country’s state organisation, with special emphasis placed on its parliamentary system.

  • Do the Origins of the Constitution Can Be Sought in Roman Law? - A Few Comments on the Side Note of the Cicero’s and Polybius’ Selected Sorks

    Author: Renata Świrgoń-Skok
    E-mail: rskok@ur.edu.pl
    Institution: University of Rzeszow
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2635-6462
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 283-293
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2020.05.21
    PDF: ppk/57/ppk5721.pdf

    In the presented article, I try to answer the question whether in the Roman state there is a possibility to find the roots of the constitution. In Roman state the constitution as a separate normative act did not exist, the separate jurisdiction of public law was not created, and a constitutional law was primarily based on the custom and political practice. However, in the preserved source material, among others, Cicero’s and Polybius’ statements can be found, which refer to the political issues. On the basis of their analyses, I try to prove that the ideas of constitutionalism and constitution, of course in a substantive sense, date back to the ancient Rome.

  • State Security and Hybrid Warfare. An Interdisciplinary Approach

    Author: Leszek Elak
    E-mail: l.elak@akademia.mil.pl
    Institution: War Studies University in Warsaw
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5255-9768
    Author: Paweł Zając
    E-mail: p.zajac@akademia.mil.pl
    Institution: War Studies University in Warsaw
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2188-5720
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 429-448
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2020.06.35
    PDF: ppk/58/ppk5835.pdf

    The article concerns the issues of state security both in legal terms and from the perspective of security science. In the first part, it presents a proposal for understanding the concept of state security based on the Polish Constitution. The article is also a contribution to the discussion on the correctness of terminology relating to the analyzed issue. The second part concerns the analysis of a new military phenomenon which is a hybrid war. The purpose of the considerations is to show its impact on state security.

  • Prezydent w systemie politycznym Turcji

    Author: Dominika Liszkowska
    Institution: Politechnika Koszalińska
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 234-250
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2021.69.14
    PDF: apsp/69/apsp6914.pdf

    W niniejszym artykule przedstawiono główne cechy tureckiego modelu systemu prezydenckiego, a także historyczne uwarunkowania pozycji prezydenta w strukturze organów państwa w Turcji. Praca składa się z trzech części. W pierwszej z nich omówione zostały podstawy parlamentaryzmu, co jest kluczową kwestią dla ukazania kształtu tureckiego systemu przed reformą. Kolejnym zagadnieniem omawianym w tej części artykułu jest proces ewolucji prezydentury od pierwszych lat powstania Republiki do zmian wprowadzonych po wyborach prezydenckich i parlamentarnych w 2018 r. W drugiej części pracy wskazano uwarunkowania zmiany systemowej. Wreszcie w ostatniej dokonano analizy nowego systemu, określanego jako prezydencjalizm „w stylu tureckim”, i ukazano jego charakterystyczne cechy.

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