Under democratic conditions, the enforcement of educational rights and obligations is one of the guarantees that the education and training system can fulfill its function effectively. In Hungary, the system of educational institutions and legal protection operating within the framework of the rule of law dates back to more than a quarter of a century, but experience in such a short period of time is significant. By presenting some of the rights and obligations related to public education, the paper gives the reader an idea of how a post-socialist country in Central and Eastern Europe operates its public education system and how it was able to adapt to European norms more than 30 years after the public law regime change. At the same time, this approach not only informs about the realization of the second-generation rights to education in Hungary, but also provides insight into the current direction of public education policy, for example through the issue of centralization-decentralization. Therefore, the study examines only those public education legal relations that are the most characteristic in terms of the presentation of the Hungarian system - in the opinion of the author -, and best reflect the public education conditions in Hungary.