The institution of a nationwide referendum in postwar Italy is one of the key elements of the socio-political changes, particularly in the presence of the indolence of the political elite and the so-called process of “unfinished constitutional transition” after 1993. The Constitution of the Italian Republic of 1947 provides for three basic forms of the referendum: a law-repealing referendum, a facultative constitutional referendum and a consultative referendum. Since the enactment of the Law on the referendum and the legislative initiative of 25 May 1970, was conducted in Italy 62 law-repealing referendums, two facultative constitutional referendums, and one consultative referendum . The law-repealing referendums concern such important issues as the introduction of divorce, abortion, artificial insemination, the abolition of life imprisonment, the construction of nuclear power plants until the changes in the financing of political parties and changes in electoral laws for both houses of Parliament. In the constitutional referendum of 2001, the citizens approved the rebuilding of the regional structure of the state, in referendum of 2006 pro- tested against the reform proposals presented by the authorities of a center-right government of Silvio Berlusconi. The only one consultative referendum concern approved the creation of the European Parliament. By reason of the importance of issues raised and the number carried out the referendum, especially in recent years, Italy is often referred to as “the republic of referendums”. However, the sore point of this form of direct democracy is decreasing voter participation, which leads to the absence of a quorum thus void consultation in case of a law-repealing referendum. Since 1997, the last 25 law-repealing referendums did not reach the required quorum, which raises further questions about the future of this institution.