women in politics

  • The participation of women in politics. Deliberations on the gender parity bill

    Author: Joanna Marszałek–Kawa
    Institution: Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń (Poland)
    Year of publication: 2011
    Source: Show
    Pages: 82-109
    DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2011006
    PDF: ppsy/40/ppsy2011006.pdf

    Male politicians are becoming increasingly aware of the fact that women have great power. Girls account for 50% of the population of school students. Women seem to be much better at handling the financial crisis than men. The recession primarily aftected the masculine part of business – widespread layoffs hit typically male industries, such as cars, tobacco, financial services. In the U.S., men account for 80% of people who lost jobs as the result of the recent crisis. Moreover, it is women that make most decisions relating to household expenses. They are also more inclined to save up for future. They typically spend money on things like education, healthcare, food and cosmetics. They also invest in their children’s future. At present, women have about $10.5 trillion at their disposal, while men have approximately $23.4 trillion. However, this disproportion is still getting smaller. The past decade saw the distance between these two worlds constantly diminish. Women control $12 trillion out of $18.4 trillion spent by consumers every year. Moreover, the increasing number of working women – as Michael J. Silverstein points – means that their income is increasing. 

  • The Economic Dimensionof the Activity of Women in the Council of Ministers in Poland between 1989 and 2008

    Author: Małgorzata Kamola–Cieślik
    Year of publication: 2008
    Source: Show
    Pages: 76-84
    DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2008006
    PDF: ppsy/37/ppsy2008006.pdf

    Polish economy is one of but many issues with which the Council of Ministers is concerned. It is managed and run by appropriate ministries, which are responsible for how well they function. Since 1945 most governmental jobs were given to men. There were very few women actively functioning in public life. Throughout the history of the Polish People’s Republic not a single woman was appointed either Prime Minister or VicePrime Minister and very few women were nominated as ministers. There were only two women who were responsible for economic matters, if only to a very limited degree – Maria Milczarek, the Minister of Administration, Infrastructure Economy and Environmental Protection (from 2nd Dec, 1976 to 8th Feb, 1979), and Anna Kędzierska – the Minister of Domestic Trade and Services (from 30th May, 1984 to 6 th Nov, 1985).

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