Author: Zbigniew Małysz
Institution: The Maria Grzegorzewska Pedagogical University in Warsaw
Year of publication: 2020
Source: Show
Pages: 131-153
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2020.67.08
PDF: apsp/67/apsp6708.pdf

The article aims at a redefinition of Islamic suicide terrorist’s motivation. It describes the basic determinants and conceptualizations of terrorism and discusses major theories and explanations of that phenomenon from an individualistic and sociocultural perspective. Due to the fact that suicide terrorism is a very distinct and narrow subcategory of terrorism, the paper addresses the questions of Why it is unique? and in What ways it is distinct from (“normal”) terrorism in general? Given the absence of convincing psychological, sociological and educational evidence that terrorists (and especially suicide terrorists) differ in any particular way from the normal population, the author has developed and proposed an “altruistic” suicide-terrorist model. The proposed model treats suicide terrorism as a process of continuous communication/education between the terrorist and his/her reference group in which psychosocial bonds are developed between the individual and the terrorist organization. The process is determined by: (1) an erroneous understanding of jihad, (2) the existence of conducive external conditions, such as frustration underpinned by poor living standards and a sectarian mentality negating the outside world and its values, and (3) a high level of altruism (and in particular reciprocal altruism) in would-be suicide bombers.

SPECYFIKA TZW. PAŃSTWA ISLAMSKIEGO

Niniejszy artykuł ma na celu zredefiniowanie motywacji islamskich terrorystów samobójców. Opisuje on podstawowe determinanty i koncepcje terroryzmu oraz omawia główne teorie i wyjaśnienia tego zjawiska z perspektywy indywidualistycznej i społeczno-kulturowej. Z uwagi na fakt, że terroryzm samobójczy jest bardzo odrębną i wąską subkategorią terroryzmu, w artykule podjęto próbę odpowiedzi na następujące pytania: Dlaczego jest on wyjątkowy? i W jaki sposób różni się od („zwykłego”) terroryzmu? Biorąc pod uwagę brak przekonujących dowodów psychologicznych, socjologicznych i edukacyjnych na to, że terroryści (a zwłaszcza terroryści samobójcy) różnią się w jakikolwiek sposób od normalnej populacji, autor opracował i zaproponował model „altruistycznego” terrorysty samobójcy. Proponowany model traktuje terroryzm samobójczy jako proces ciągłej komunikacji między terrorystą a jego/jej grupą odniesienia, w którym rozwijane są więzi psychospołeczne między jednostką a organizacją terrorystyczną. Proces ten determinowany jest przez: (1) błędne zrozumienie dżihadu, (2) istnienie sprzyjających warunków zewnętrznych, takich jak frustracja spowodowana złym poziomem życia i mentalności sekciarskiej negującej świat zewnętrzny i jego wartości, oraz (3) wysoki poziom altruizmu (a zwłaszcza altruizmu odwzajemnionego) u potencjalnych zamachowców samobójców.

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