Issue 4

Spis treści

Author: The Editors
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 3-4
DOI Address: -
PDF: cpls/8/cpls8toc.pdf

SPIS TREŚCI / CONTENTS / ЗМІСТ

Ideology and Political Philosophy: Search for New Paradigms

Author: Olena Ivanova
Institution: Khmelnytskyi University of Management and Law named after Leonid Yuzkov
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0682-5607
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 7-12
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/CPLS.2023401
PDF: cpls/8/cpls801.pdf

The outlined problems allow forming an idea and understanding of how modern society perceives and constructs political and ideological foundations. By examining the definition of new paradigms, the author expands knowledge of how contemporary forces such as globalization, migration, and military conflict shape the perspectives of individuals and communities. This study examines the reinterpretation of traditional ideologies and political concepts in the context of new realities. The author considers the impact of globalization on the formation of ideological foundations and the role of citizenship in this context. The impact of geopolitics on modern political philosophy is analyzed, highlighting how global relations and conflicts shape political views. The author notes that ideological political concepts in the 21st century are determined by the complexity of the modern global political landscape and responses to new challenges. The concepts emphasize the importance of global cooperation and shared values, offering an open and transnational vision of the political order; advocate the preservation of sovereignty and cultural identity, rejecting some of the globalization trends in favor of protecting domestic interests; are aimed at the protection of individual rights and freedoms, as well as the support of humanitarian values such as equality and justice; combine ecology and politics, reflecting the desire for sustainable development and solving environmental problems at the level of political strategies. Attention is drawn to the geostrategic aspects of defining national ideologies and the influence of global forces on domestic political processes. The author examines the challenges arising from civilizational oppression, focusing on environmental issues, migration problems and international conflicts. The significance of these challenges for the development of new political concepts and strategies is analyzed. Modern political philosophy questions existing structures and seeks alternative ways of managing society, as well as defining goals and values that should contribute to sustainable development. In-depth reflection on the ethical aspects of politics in the modern world also occupies an important place within the framework of the study. From issues of justice and equality to understanding the relationship between society and nature, the research aims to explore sound and innovative concepts for solving today’s challenges. This article stands out for its relevance and variety of approaches to the consideration of ideologies and political philosophy, contributing to a deeper understanding of modern challenges and the search for new paradigms in political philosophical thinking.

digital revolution information era freedom geopolitics management socio-cultural landscape

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Postawy młodzieży szkolnej wobec moralności bioetycznej

Author: Janusz Mariański
Institution: Wyższa Szkoła Nauk Społecznych w Lublinie
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0620-8000
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 13-31
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/CPLS.2023402
PDF: cpls/8/cpls802.pdf

Attitudes of Schoolchildren towards Bioethical Morality

In our discussion of the social narrative, we address such issues as in vitro fertilization, human cloning and gender reassignment. These diagnoses are based on the results of sociological studies and nationwide surveys carried out in the two decades of the 21st century. In the past few years, the views of schoolchildren on bioethical issues have undergone progressive liberalization. Diverse views on important bioethical issues were found among Polish high school students surveyed in November and December 2022 and January 2023. In vitro fertilization was judged acceptable by 63.8% of the surveyed schoolchildren, “it depends” – 17.2%, unacceptable – 7.4%, difficult to say – 11.6%; human cloning (respectively) – 25.7%, 21.7%, 21.9%, 30.7%; gender reassignment – 42.2%, 15.7%, 28.3%, 13.8%. The average rate of bioethical issues analyzed was as follows: acceptable – 43.9%, “it depends” – 18.2%, unacceptable – 19.2%, difficult to say – 18.7%. Combining the first two responses, we get a rate of 62.1% of those who allow these behaviors as excusable (permissible). The Catholic Church’s position on bioethical issues was supported by slightly more than a fifth of the schoolchildren surveyed.

schoolchildren in vitro fertilization human cloning sex change secularization of morality

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Management of the Processes of Improving the Quality of Life in the Region

Author: Olena Bieliaieva
Institution: Sumy National Agrarian University, Ukraine
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7246-4694
Author: Alina Zabolotna
Institution: Sumy National Agrarian University, Ukraine
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 32-38
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/CPLS.2023403
PDF: cpls/8/cpls803.pdf

The article is dedicated to the examination of management processes and the implementation of strategies to enhance the quality of life in a regional context using the example of the Druzhbivska territorial community (TG). The article includes an analysis of the socio-economic context of the Druzhbivska TG, identifies key factors influencing the quality of life in the region, and considers measures and initiatives implemented within the strategy to enhance the quality of life. It addresses current challenges such as demographic changes and economic transformations, emphasizing the necessity of developing effective strategies to ensure sustainable development and citizen welfare. Recommendations highlight the development of healthcare and social security programs, the introduction of innovations in the medical field, and the creation of attractive conditions for youth and professionals through the advancement of education, science, and innovation. It is noted that the Druzhbivska TG can play a pivotal role in addressing these challenges. The research is focused on the issue of managing the quality of life in regional conditions, with a focus on the Druzhbivska territorial community. Decreasing birth rates, rising mortality, and population migration pose new tasks for the region. The article proposes specific strategies, including the development of healthcare and social security programs, innovative approaches in the medical sphere, and measures to retain youth and professionals. It underscores the role of the Druzhbivska TG as a key participant in addressing these challenges and ensuring an improvement in the quality of life for the population in the region. This text examines the importance of managing processes to improve the quality of life in regional conditions, specifically using the example of the Druzhbivska territorial community. It mentions that contemporary challenges such as demographic changes, economic, and social transformations make this issue exceptionally pertinent. The problems associated with declining birth rates, increasing mortality, and migration are highlighted, emphasizing the need for effective strategies to overcome these challenges. Specific ideas are proposed, such as the development of healthcare and social security programs, innovative approaches to the medical field, and initiatives to attract and retain young professionals in the region through educational and scientific initiatives. In conclusion, it identifies existing and potential issues in managing the quality of life in a regional context and suggests specific pathways to address these challenges through the active participation of the Druzhbivska territorial community. The proposed strategies aimed at improving healthcare, social security, and creating an appealing environment for youth and professionals may serve as a foundation for sustainable development and the enhancement of the quality of life in the region. Thus, the article illuminates the importance of effective management of processes aimed at ensuring community well-being and development.

Process Management Druzhbivska TG social protection and healthcare directions for further development innovative approaches global trends programs development current challenges

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The International Legal Order and Hybrid Wars

Author: Artem Samorodov
Institution: National Academy of Legal Sciences of Ukraine, Ukraine
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5572-4696
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 39-45
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/CPLS.2023404
PDF: cpls/8/cpls804.pdf

This article addresses the urgent issue of hybrid threats within the international legal framework. It examines their implications through the lens of the conflict in Ukraine, Israel and other violations of fundamental principles of international law by authoritarian actors. The author critically evaluates the inadequacy of the current international legal system in dealing with the complex nature of hybrid threats, which exploit vulnerabilities in democratic societies. The article advocates for a comprehensive approach, calling for reforms at national, regional, and international levels to strengthen resilience and establish a more secure and adaptable international system. Throughout the article, various proposals are presented with the aim of reshaping the global security architecture. The author emphasizes the need for a thorough reassessment of existing international norms and institutions, highlighting the urgency of adopting innovative strategies to protect against the sophisticated tactics employed by authoritarian actors in hybrid warfare.

international law adaptive democracy hybrid democracy enforcement hybrid war

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Powstanie w getcie warszawskim 1943 r. Spory o stosunek Polaków do Żydów

Author: Lech Wyszczelski
Institution: profesor emerytowany Akademii Obrony Narodowej w Warszawie i Uniwersytetu Przyrodniczo-Humanistycznego w Siedlcach
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2063-4281
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 46-60
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/CPLS.2023405
PDF: cpls/8/cpls805.pdf

Warsaw Ghetto Uprising of 1943. Disputes Over the Attitude of Poles toward Jews

One of Hitler’s important goals, as stated in “Mein Kampf”, was the destruction of the Jews. He began implementing this plan with the outbreak of World War II. In the occupied Polish territories and as his conquests in subsequent European countries progressed, he ordered first the concentration of Jews in ghettos and their annihilation through progressive starvation, and from the spring of 1942 through their mass annihilation in special extermination camps. Those in Warsaw, Poland – they constituted some 3 million – in 1943 made a desperate attempt, with no real chance of success to resist, the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising. This resulted in the destruction by arson of some 50,000 Jews who remained there. This event and its aftermath provoke passionate disputes as to whether Poles provided, and to what extent, assistance to the murdered Jews. This sketch will show the disputes, and within the Poles, waged on the 80th anniversary of these events related to this. This is the aftermath of contemporary Polish “historical politics”.

Holocaust Jews Poles Treblinka anti-Semitism ghetto uprising Nazism extermination

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Internally Displaced Persons in Ukraine: Socio-Economic Situation and Educational, Cultural Challenges

Author: Olga Horpynych
Institution: State University of Trade and Economics, Ukraine
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6101-4612
Author: Nikita Omelchenko
Institution: State University of Trade and Economics, Ukraine
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0009-0000-9033-3586
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 61-69
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/CPLS.2023406
PDF: cpls/8/cpls806.pdf

The article examines a new social group in Ukrainian society that emerged after the events of 2014, related to the aggressive actions of the Russian Federation against Ukraine and the annexation of Crimea. This social group became even larger after Russia’s criminal full-scale invasion of the territory of sovereign Ukraine. Internally displaced people have become the face of the crisis of social, economic and psychological stresses that modern society has faced against the backdrop of war. The authors examine the main issues faced by internally displaced persons, drawing attention to the fact that the indicators of this category are increasingly changing the structure of Ukrainian society. The article defines the category of IDPs, focuses on the consideration of IDPs as two instances: a special social status that is a determinant of behavior/socio-cultural determination and creation of their own conditions in the socio-economic situation, or a special social group that has received legal shelter with the help of the authorities according to the established status.

Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) migrants socio-economic status displaced persons social adaptation social security

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Financial and Legal Responsibility of Local Government Bodies in Today’s Conditions

Author: Aliona Laba
Institution: Postgraduate Student at Kyiv International University, Ukraine
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0441-3828
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 70-75
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/CPLS.2023407
PDF: cpls/8/cpls807.pdf

In the financial system of the state, law-making activity is built on an extensive system of constitutional principles, a wide range of market relations, effective legal regulation, because it is the synthesis of these legal concepts that allows for the implementation of effective and socially oriented state policy, since ensuring compliance with the principle of the rule of law remains a priority and fundamental principle state formation. This allows us to once again emphasize the importance and necessity of the state’s responsibility for ensuring compliance by officials and those authorized to perform the functions of the state before citizens, but this does not exclude the mutual responsibility of a person before the state and every citizen. Determining the definition of financial and legal responsibility is considered the most difficult and one of the most controversial in the modern legal system. The definition of the type of financial and legal responsibility as an independent element of financial and legal science is rather vague and controversial, which is associated with the impossibility of establishing a cause-and-effect relationship and establishing a financial and legal sanction. The primary task is the tort demarcation and legal definition of the delimitation of financial and legal responsibility separately from the general definition of legal responsibility, in particular administrative, because the system of current legislation contains conflicting and duplicating norms that create difficulties in law enforcement practice. The analysis of recent scientific works allows us to identify some problematic aspects of financial and legal responsibility that have not been sufficiently characterized and studied. Acquaintance with scientific publications from this direction allowed us to conclude that they relate to certain theoretical and practical aspects of financial and legal responsibility. The general theory of legal responsibility remains controversial and requires detailed research with the categorical legal apparatus, because at the moment there is no single principle of interpretation of such concepts as «legal responsibility», «offence», «sanction», only a partial correlation of legal sanctions and legal responsibility has been carried out.

financial and legal responsibility subject of responsibility objective party of responsibility territorial community local self-government bodies person authorized to perform state functions

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Stanowisko Unii Europejskiej wobec sztucznej inteligencji w medycynie. Analiza i implikacje „Rozporządzenia Parlamentu Europejskiego i Rady ustanawiające zharmonizowane przepisy dotyczące sztucznej inteligencji”

Author: Dominik Łepecki
Institution: Powiatowe Centrum Medyczne w Grójcu
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0009-0007-3737-7599
Author: Marcin Mikusek-Pham Van
Institution: Uniwersyteckie Centrum Kliniczne Warszawskiego Uniwersytetu Medycznego
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0009-0004-3920-3099
Author: Bartłomiej Grodziński
Institution: Hôpital Avicenne, Bobigny, Francja
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0009-0000-3368-9500
Author: Robert Tomaszewski
Institution: Uniwersyteckie Centrum Kliniczne Warszawskiego Uniwersytetu Medycznego
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0009-0000-0225-538X
Author: Elena Sztemberg
Institution: Powiatowe Centrum Medyczne w Grójcu
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0009-0003-1699-8602
Author: Agata Chojnicka
Institution: Warszawski Uniwersytet Medyczny
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0009-0004-3165-5920
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 76-82
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/CPLS.2023408
PDF: cpls/8/cpls808.pdf

The position of the European Union towards artificial intelligence in medicine. Analysis and implications of the ‘Regulations of the European Parliament and of the Council laying down harmonized rules on artificial intelligence’

In the face of a technological revolution driven by advances in the field of Artificial Intelligence (AI), the following work aims to explore the expected implications and consequences based on the Regulation of the European Parliamen and Councilt: Artificial Intelligence Act, with a particular focus on the medical sector. The above mentioned act, which is a response to the dynamic social and technological changes, is a groundbreaking initiative of the European Union aimed at ensuring the safe, ethical and responsible use of AI. In the healthcare sector, where AI has the potential to fundamentally transform diagnosis, therapy and healthcare management, this regulation plays a key role in defining the future of data-driven medicine. Our work examines the impact of this legal act regarding safety, transparency and the protection of civil rights in the medical sector. We draw attention to the fundamental challenges and threats related to the integration of AI in medicine, including issues of ethics, security and data protection. Our work highlights that the future of AI in the healthcare sector should be shaped not only by technological progress, but also by a strong commitment to ethics, responsibility and respect for human rights.

low European Union medicine artificial intelligence

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Administrative Liability for Violation of Human Information Rights in Ukraine

Author: Yelizaveta Tymoshenko
Institution: Vinnytsia Mykhailo Kotsiubynskyi State Pedagogical University, Ukraine
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6852-6242
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 83-88
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/CPLS.2023409
PDF: cpls/8/cpls809.pdf

The aim of the article is to draw attention to and explore the problem of access to various types of information on the Internet. It also emphasizes the relevance of this issue in the modern world. The article employs general and special scientific methodologies for conducting legal research, including systemic, systemic-structural, comparative legal analysis, and synthesis, deduction and induction, and other methods of scientific cognition. In our time, one of the significant problems on the Internet is the dissemination of information, despite users granting permission for the use of such data. For example, seemingly trivial information such as a person’s address can be freely used in educational institutions, municipal administrations, and other organizations. However, when entering the online space, the circle of individuals with access to this information significantly expands, posing potential harm to many citizens. There are organizations and laws designed to control the flow of information on the Internet, but unfortunately, such control is currently imperfect. As a result, many personal data that people would not want to disclose become freely accessible to all individuals online without their consent, leading to the misuse of data against the subjects, violating their right to personal life, honor, and dignity. The article discusses the protection of informational rights and the security of individuals in modern information society as one of the state’s priority goals to ensure legal life and the well-being of citizens. It also touches upon the category of “information violation” as it is directly related to the rights to information protection and the responsibility for encroachments upon them. The Internet space is one of the largest concentrations of information regarding subjects of socio-legal relations. Therefore, information can be utilized for the benefit of people as well as for the opposite. Overall, many actions in the online space are illegal and can cause harm to other Internet users. The global Internet network is a vast data repository, so the article examines the dissemination of confidential information specifically in this space.

information violations information protection regulatory legal regulation information crime information violation online information sphere

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On the Development of the Іnstitute of Recognition of Unexplained Assets in Ukraine

Author: Yaroslav Voronizhskyi
Institution: Postgraduate Student at the Department of Civil-Law Disciplines, National Academy of Internal Affairs, Ukraine
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6377-8448
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 89-99
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/CPLS.2023410
PDF: cpls/8/cpls810.pdf

The paper explores the possibility of introducing modern legal mechanisms of civil forfeiture adopted in foreign jurisdictions into the Ukrainian institute of recognition of unexplained assets and their forfeiture to the state revenue (“RUA”). Before defining the mechanisms of civil forfeiture adopted in other states, the paper defines essential characteristics of defendant and plaintiff for this category of cases. Moreover, based on the analysis of defendant’s essential characteristics and legal practice of the High Anti-Corruption Court (“HACC”) as well as the Appeals Chamber of High Anti-Corruption Court (“AP HACC”) in RUA cases, the essential characteristics of nominal owners are defined, and their role as determinant of unexplained assets concealment is indicated. Based on the analysis of legal practices of the European Court of Human Rights (“ECtHR”), a conclusion has been made with regards to the possibility of recovery of unexplained assets acquired before the civil forfeiture law’s entry into force, as well as an assessment of compliance of such a sanction with the European Convention on Human Rights (“ECHR”). The paper indicates the need to amend Part 1 of Art. 57 of the Civil Procedure Code of Ukraine. Based on the analysis of the application of the institute of civil forfeiture in foreign states and the results of his previous research, the author concludes the expediency of extending the provisions of RUA mechanism in Ukraine onto assets acquired before the RUA law came into effect. The work provides statistical data from other states indicating the effectiveness of settlement agreements (settlements) in illicit enrichment cases. Taking into account the practices of other states, the possibility of implementing the institute of settlements has been determined, both before the filing of a RUA lawsuit, and during the trial. Furthermore, the paper emphasizes the importance for the prosecutor to be given a choice between criminal and civil procedure for asset forfeiture, irrespective of the value of the potentially unexplained asset. Taking into account the Supreme Court’s practice regarding mala fides and bona fides purchasers of assets, as well as legal practices in foreign jurisdictions, the author establishes the need to introduce amendments to the Civil Procedure Code of Ukraine that allow the recovery of the unexplained assets that have been transferred to a third party, if such party was plausibly aware of their illicit origin, and also in the event of impossibility of executing court ruling in a RUA case

civil forfeiture nominal owner ex post facto application the settlement bona fide acquirer fraudulent transaction ECHR practice

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Directions of Improving the Legal Regulation of Notary Activities

Author: Valentin Mondryivskyi
Institution: Kyiv City State Administration; Postgraduate Student, Kyiv International University, Ukraine
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1307-8048
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 100-105
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/CPLS.2023411
PDF: cpls/8/cpls811.pdf

Social life is constantly undergoing changes, as a result of which there is a need for rapid response on the part of representatives of notary activities, in order to effectively perform the functional powers delegated by the state – protection of the rights and legitimate interests of persons seeking help from a notary, the latter must constantly improve himself. Notary acts not only as a body of preventive justice, but also as a human rights institution, because it takes an active part in civil turnover. With the help of the notary institution, the state takes preventive measures that ensure legal security in society, which, in turn, is one of the main tasks of the state and an indicator of its capacity. The notarial process is independent in relation to civil proceedings, since the activity of notarial bodies is non-contentious in nature, in which the principle of adversarial parties is not used. For consideration of the notarial process, great importance is attached to the form of notarial activity, which represents is a set of requirements for the actions of participants in the notarial process aimed at achieving a specific result. In this regard, the relevance of the study of the basics of the notary as a subject of the protection of constitutional rights is high and conditioned by the need for further improvement of the guarantee of human rights and freedoms in Ukraine. Such Ukrainian and foreign authors as S. P. Holovaty, T. M. Karnaukh, N. V. Mishina, V. V. Barankova, Yu. V. Zhelikhovska, O. I. Nelin, O. P. Vasylchenko, K. F. Bilko, N. V. Karnaruk, Yu. Yu. Bysaga, N. V. Vasylyna, N. M. Denysiak, L. M. Deshko, O. A. Martyniuk.

Notary notarial process notarial activity constitutional rights notarial act notarial procedure

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European Commonality through Language. A history of phonemic sound change

Author: Jake Gears
Institution: University of Warmia and Mazury
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0009-0004-6878-2907
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 106-114
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/CPLS.2023412
PDF: cpls/8/cpls812.pdf

The aim of this investigation was to establish whether a relationship between respective phonemic elements in early Germanic and Slavic verb roots exists and could expose deeper cross language commonality. Verbs chosen for the study relate to eating or food preparation. Analysis was carried out using a comparative method that examined Germanic and Slavic words in terms of their phonological progression from Proto Indo-European to present day English and Polish. Widespread distribution of verb roots established through diachronic histories together with evidence of phonological operation and development of consonants and vowels, provided the framework within which similarities, differences and changes could be assessed. Research focused on the phonotactic structure and phonetic properties found in Proto-Germanic and Proto-Slavic verb roots and separated their elements into discreet component parts using skeletal and melody analysis. Further examination of phonotactic sequences in proto forms, derived from the same Proto Indo-European verb root, provided evidence of a strong language specific bias towards the preservation of consonantal or vocalic properties either overtly in the skeletal sequence or covertly in the melody. A quantitative qualitative difference creating discreet blocks in a syllable. This study suggests that commonality, evident through a shared level of complexity, expressed in Germanic as a consonant cluster and in Slavic as complex melodic units present phoneme groupings responsible for early divergent tendencies in the respective languages.

Polish-English cognates diachronic phonology sound changes

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Sprawozdanie z Pierwszego Ukraińsko-Polskiego Młodzieżowe Forum Klimatycznego (Lwów, 23 listopada 2023 r.)

Author: Teresa Astramowicz-Leyk
Institution: profesor Uniwersytetu Warmińsko-Mazurskiego w Olsztynie, Profesor Honorowa UN Politechnika Lwowska, Przewodnicząca Komitetu Naukowego VII P-UFN
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5581-2325
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 117-118
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/CPLS.2023413
PDF: cpls/8/cpls813.pdf

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