W kierunku empowerment

Author: Anna Pluskota
Institution: Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu
Year of publication: 2013
Source: Show
Pages: 70-92
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2013.04.05
PDF: kie/97/kie9705.pdf

Towards Empowerment

The primary goal of this paper is to introduce the concept of empowerment, its sources, definitions and various ways to comprehend it. The author’s professional interest lies in the field of scientific research. But the topic was primarily chosen due to the fact that the concept of empowerment has not only been increasingly recognized and studied by social sciences but also widely applied in everyday life. The concept of empowerment has been utilized in many different contexts. It can be categorized as a scientific phenomenon that in spite of being popular and widely used does not have a uniform definition. Empowerment is not only a theory but also an idea, a model or a research. Empowerment is also both a process and the outcome of a process. It may be understood by any one of the mentioned meanings or all of them together. The paper is based on the assumption that empowerment is a multidimensional concept. There are two important consequences of this assumption. First of all, as already mentioned, the concept does not have one uniform definition (the definition depends on different socio-cultural and political contexts the concept operates in). Second of all, the nature of its many dimensions derives from its many levels. There are three levels of empowerment – individual, organizational and community. The paper postulates that the levels are interconnected and interact. So any change on any level influences the other levels. The levels are connected by mediating structures that are essential to find the answer to the question this paper raises – whether an individual can influence a social change? The deliberations presented in this paper are set in the educational context. The author’s reflections on the social and educational intervention models are also set in that context. The paper concludes with the thesis that the empowerment (resources) model needs to be included in the academic curriculum.

REFERENCES:

  • Bandura A., Self-efficacy: The Exercise of Control, New York 1997.
  • Bandura A., Some Reflections on Reflections, „Psychological Inquiry” 1990, Vol. 1, No. 1.
  • Bandura A., Human Agency in Social Cognitive Theory, „American Psychologist” 1989, Vol. 44, No. 9.
  • Berger P.L., Neuhaus R.J., To Empower People, the Role of Mediating Structures in Public Policy, Washington, DC 1977.
  • Christens B.D., Toward Relational Empowerment, „American Journal of Community Psychology” 2012, Vol. 50, No. 1 – 2.
  • Cornell University Empowerment Group, Empowerment and Family Support, „Networking Bulletin” 1989, Vol. 1, No. 1.
  • Dee J., Sohel I.A. with contribution from C. Barahona, Measuring Empowerment? Ask Them, „Sida Studies in Evaluation” 2010, Vol. 1.
  • Fetterman D.M., Empowerment Evaluation, „American Journal of Evaluation” 1994, Vol. 15, No. 1.
  • Freire P., Education for Critical Cnsciousness, New York 1973.
  • Freire P., Pedagogy of the Oppressed, New York 1970.
  • Ginsburg H., The myth of the deprived child: poor children’s intellect and education, New Jersey 1972.
  • Maier S.F., Seligman M.E.P., Learned Helplessness: Theory and Evidence, „Journal of Experimental Psychology” 1976, General 105.
  • Mann Hyung H., Empowerment in terms of Theoretical Perspectives: Exploring a Typology of the Process and Components across Disciplines, „Journal of Community Psychology” 2006, Vol. 34, No. 5.
  • Page N., Czuba, C.E., Empowerment: What is it? „Journal of Extension” 1999, Vol. 37, No. 5.
  • Perkins D.D., Zimmerman M.A, Empowerment Theory, Research, and Application, „American Journal of Community Psychology” 1995, Vol. 23, No. 5.
  • Pluskota-Lewandowska A., Pozytywnie w edukacji, „Kultura i Edukacja” 2011, nr 3.
  • Pluskota-Lewandowska A., Fenomen optymizmu-pesymizmu młodzieży w kontekście emancypacyjnej roli edukacji, „Kultura i Edukacja” 2009, nr 3.
  • Pluskota-Lewandowska A., Fenomen optymizmu-pesymizmu, „Kultura i Edukacja” 2000, nr 3 – 4.
  • Rappaport J., In Praise of Paradox: A Social Policy of Empowerment Over Prevention, „American Journal of Community Psychology” 1981, Vol. 9, No. 1.
  • Rappaport J., Studies in Empowerment: Introduction to the Issue, „Prevention in Human Services” 1984, Vol. 3, No. 2(3).
  • Rappaport J., The Power of Empowerment Language, „Social Policy” 1985, Vol. 15, No. 2.
  • Rappaport J., Terms of Empowerment/Exemplars of Prevention. Toward a Theory of Community Psychology, „American Journal of Community Psychology” 1987, Vol. 15, No. 2.
  • Rappaport J., Empowerment Meets Narrative: Listening to Stories and Creating Settings, „American Journal of Community Psychology” 1995, Vol. 23, No. 5.
  • Seligman M.E.P., Csikszentmihalyi M., Positive psychology: An introduction, „American Psychologist” 2000, Vol. 55, No. 1.
  • Seligman M.E.P., Ernst R.M., Gillham J., Revich K., Lindkins M., Positive Education: Positive Psychology and Classroom Interventions, „Oxford Reviev of Education” 2009, Vol. 35, No. 3.
  • Seligman M.E.P., Optymizmu można się nauczyć. Jak zmienić swoje myślenie i swoje życie, Poznań 1993.
  • Seligman M.E.P., Park N.C., Steen T., Peterson Ch., Positive Psychology Progress Empirical Validation of Intervention, „American Psychologist” 2005, Vol. 60, No. 5.
  • Schulz A.J., Israel B.A., Zimmerman M.A., Checkoway B., Empowerment as a Multi-Level Construct: Perceived Control at the Individual, Organizational and Community Levels, „PCMA Working Paper Series” 1993.
  • Solomon B.B., Black Empowerment: Social Work in Oppressed Communities, New York 1976.
  • Solomon B.B., How to Really Empower Families? New Strategies for Social Work Practitioners, „Family Resource Coalition” 1985, Report 3.
  • Wallerstein N., Powerlessness, Empowerment, and Health: Implications for Health Promotion Programs, „American Journal of Health Promotion” 1992, Vol. 6, No. 3.
  • Wallerstein N., Bernstein E., Introduction to Community Empowerment, Participatory Education, and Health, „Healtheducation Quarterly” 1994, Vol. 21, No. 5.
  • Zimmerman M.A., Psychological Empowerment: Issues and Illustrations, „American Journal of Community Psychology” 1995, Vol. 23, No. 5.
  • Zimmerman M.A., Empowerment Theory: Psychological, Organizational and Community Levels of Analysis [w:] Handbook of Community Psychology, J. Rappaport, E. Seidman (red.), New York 2000.
  • Zimmerman M.A., Rappaport J., Citizen Participation, Perceived Control and Psychological Empowerment, „American Journal of Community Psychology” 1988, Vol. 16, No.5.
  • Zimmerman M.A., Toward a Theory of Learned Hopefulness: A Structural Model Analysis of Participation and Empowerment, „Journal of Research in Personality” 1990, Vol. 24, No. 1.
  • Zimmerman M.A., Taking Aim on Empowerment Research: On the Distinction between Individual and Psychological Conceptions, „American Journal of Community Psychology” 1990, Vol. 18, No. 1.
  • Zimmerman M.A., Further Explorations in Empowerment theory: An Empirical Analysis of Psychological Empowerment, „American Journal of Community Psychology” 1992, Vol. 20, No. 6.

resources model strengths model deficits model mediating structures critical consciousness empowerment learning Education

Message to:

 

 

© 2017 Adam Marszałek Publishing House. All rights reserved.

Projekt i wykonanie Pollyart