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Contents

Author: The Editors
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 5-6
DOI Address: -
PDF: kie/112/kie112toc.pdf

Polonezköy

Author: Joanna Marszałek-Kawa
Author: Ahmet Burak
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 9-20
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2016.02.01
PDF: kie/112/kie11201.pdf

There is a village on the Asian shore of the Bosphorus, initially called Adampol, but now known as Polonezköy. The Polish village is located 40 km. east of Istanbul, and was established by Poles in the nineteenth century as a shelter for the country’s immigrant community. This bound the destinies of many Poles with Turkey in the nineteenth century. Once people described the village „Soplicowo on the Bosporus”. Although the Polish village in Turkey has lost much of its original character through time, it remains one of the most extraordinary centres of Polish immigrants in the world (Wyszynska, 2016). This paper analyzes the main problems in Polonezköy and investigates how Polonezköy takes an important place in bilateral relations between Turkey and Poland.

Polonezköy­-Adampol Turkey Istanbul

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Globalization and the Third Research Program of Multiple Modernities

Author: Gerhard Preyer
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 21-42
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2016.02.02
PDF: kie/112/kie11202.pdf

Shmuel N. Eisenstadt has fundamentally modified the classical theory of modernization. Over the course of his work, which is connected with the changes of sociological theory since the 1950s, he has executed a turn from the comparative analysis of institutions to the research program of comparative civilizations. The research program of multiple modernities has emerged out of this attentional shift coming from the First Research Program 1986, which led to “multiple modernities” and to the Second Research Program 2003. A key milestone was the critique of the theory of structural differentiation as the main process underlying the socio­structural evolution of societies; this began with The Political Systems of Empires (1963), along with the development of convergence theories of modernization, which have had impact on contemporary sociological theory beginning with that same book. In the meantime, the research program of multiple modernities now continues into the Third Research Program of Multiple Modernities, Membership, and Globalization 2016 and its implementation (Preyer and Sussman, 2016a, b). Firstly, I will show how the program seeks to sketch an updated vision of the theoretical systematization of research on globalization since the 1990s. Secondly, I will go on to sketch the foci of research within the Third Research Program in our era of globalization; finally, I shall outline some consequences of changes in the research situation within sociological theory.

globalization multiple modernities sociology of membership hybridization creolization multi­culturalism global studies postmodern society development theory collective identities

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Nature, Man and Logos: An Outline of the Anthropology of the Sophists

Author: Zbigniew Nerczuk
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 43-52
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2016.02.03
PDF: kie/112/kie11203.pdf

The paper aims at reconstructing the fundamentals of the sophistic anthropology. Contrary to the recognized view of the humanistic shift which took place in the sophistic thought, there is evidence that the sophists were continuously concerned with the problems of philosophy of nature. The difference between the sophists and their Presocratic predecessors was that their criticism of the philosophical tradition and the transformative answers given to the old questions were the basis and the starting point of the “ethical” and “rhetorical” part of their intellectual activity. This naturalistic perspective is reflected in their research in the field of medicine and biology, in the discussion about “the human nature”, and in their interest in the individual physiological and mental conditions, which determine the state of the human body and the behaviour of a man. The sophists pioneered in linguistic, rhetorical, and philological studies. To enhance the power of persuasion, they investigated how various mental conditions influenced cognitive processes and physiological reactions. Thus they started a thorough examination of the human psyche, initiating the field of psychology. Although the originality of the sophists in each of the aforementioned aspects is undeniable, a complete picture of the sophists can only be achieved by examining the sources of their thought: the Presocratic philosophical tradition, Hippocratic medicine, and earlier literary tradition.

anthropology ancient Greek philosophy Presocratics the sophists theory of cognition rhetoric

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David Hume’s Theory of Action

Author: Justyna Van den Abbeel
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 53-65
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2016.02.04
PDF: kie/112/kie11204.pdf

The main goal of this paper is to reconstruct David Hume’s theory of action from the perspective of the second book Of the Passion in his work A Treatise of Human Nature. My paper will proceed in three steps. In the first part I present the main assumptions of Hume’s views on action together with a general outline of his theory. I show that for Hume action has a uniform character and that there is a constant relation between action and the motive which can be understood as desire or aversion. Next, in the second part, the main elements involved in the process of human activity will be outlined, such as: passions, will, liberty, and reason. Although Hume emphasizes that the passions are the main motive of action, since they have the power to initiate and withhold action, reason also plays an important role. In order to come to a better understanding, I will consider the functions which these elements are playing in human action and some of the problematic issues which are connected with them such as, whether each of the passions can motivate a person to action, what the relationship between passions and will is, and what kind of relation between passions and reason can be found. Finally, in the third and last part of my paper, I will conclude with a schematic outline of human action and the relation between different components engaged in the process of action.

motivation theory of action passion reason will liberty necessity human nature

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Mary Wollstonecraft and the Beginnings of Pro-animal Education

Author: Barbara Grabowska
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 66-78
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2016.02.05
PDF: kie/112/kie11205.pdf

Amidst the many topics important for the shaping of character of adolescents in Original Stories, Mary Wollstonecraft places such important issues as our attitude towards animals. She wants to convince the readers that not only should we not hurt animals but also offer them our aid. The education that sensitises us to the fate of animals is an important element of moral education. Being kind for the beings of other species is what makes us better, more compassionate. And reversely being cruel towards animals turns us into brutes capable of hurting also people. Tormenting animals is moreover inconsistent with God’s will and leads to the infliction of completely unnecessary and senseless suffering. Which is why it deserves severe condemnation.

animals Education suffering virtue religion

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Sartre’s Critique of Freud’s Conception of Emotions

Author: Marta Agata Chojnacka
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 79-90
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2016.02.06
PDF: kie/112/kie11206.pdf

The purpose of this article is to reconstruct Sartre’s critique of selected elements of Freud’s psychoanalysis as far as the emotions theory is concerned. I am analysing those assumptions of Freud’s teachings which became subjected to Sartre’s critique and why. I also point out the fact that some of the elements of psychoanalysis where emphasised by Sartre as important for the development of the emotions theory. My deliberations are based largely on Sartre’s Sketch for a Theory of the Emotion.

emotions psychoanalysis Sartre Freud censor unconsciousness phenomenology

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Left and Right-Libertarianism

Author: Dariusz Juruś
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 91-101
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2016.02.07
PDF: kie/112/kie11207.pdf

In the paper I discuss theoretical differences between left and right­libertarianism. (I will skip the specific and practical issues which differ left and right­libertarians, including among others the minorities and immigration policies or affirmative action. I assume that practical solutions suggested by the followers of both positions stem from their theoretical assumptions.) I will focus on two issues which determine the fundamental difference between left and right­libertarianism. These are property and equality. I compare standpoints of some leftlibertarians with the positions of rightlibertarians represented by Murray Rothbard, concerning property and equality. I conclude that the main and fundamental difference between leftand rightlibertarians concerns equality. Leftlibertarians are egalitarians whereas rightlibertarians are antiegalitarians. I also argue that egalitarian position is not compatible with the notion of full selfownership, which leftlibertarians advocate for.

equality property libertarianism natural resources redistribution

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Embodied Criticism. Theoretical Foundations of Cognitive Poetics

Author: Kamila Żukowska
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 102-111
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2016.02.08
PDF: kie/112/kie11208.pdf

The aim of the paper is to discuss the cognitive approach to metaphor launched by Lakoff and Johnson, which turns out to be also the key question to the problem of intersubjective communicability of literary work. Based on this approach, the literature can simply be considered a kind of language using spatial metaphors with additional emotional content.

cognitive science literary theory poetics metaphor

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Towards Explanation of the Natural Origins of Content

Author: Daniel Żuromski
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 112-127
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2016.02.09
PDF: kie/112/kie11209.pdf

How should we understand intentionality in the physical world? This question may be further divided into at least two other: How to understand intentional states in the physical world? (And if we refer to the entirety of such states as the mind then our question will take on the following form: How should we understand the mind in the physical world) and How to understand intentional content in the physical world? One of the most important projects in modern philosophy of mind and cognitive science consists in naturalisation of the content of mental states. The prevalent concept in the thus understood content naturalisation programme was the reductionist conception. In the article I present one of the proposals of content naturalisation by Daniel D. Hutto and Glenda Satne from the article The Natural Origins of Content. On the one hand, they reject the project of naturalising the content of mental states which is conceived as a reduction of semantic properties of contents of mental states solely to physical causative relations, properties or social mechanisms. On the other hand, Daniel D. Hutto and Glenda Satne present a research programme which does not seek a reductionist explanation of content but rather examines how the content emerged in the natural world – the natural origins of content. Although the authors describe the main framework of such a programme, they do not venture to answer the question whether such a theory even exists. In this article I am going to present the concept of Michael Tomaello most explicitly expressed in his Natural History of Human Thinking as a promising example of such a theory.

naturalising content the Shared Intentionality Hypothesis the natural origins of content Michael Tomasello Ur-­intentionality Relaxed Naturalism

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Morbus Etymologicus? Philosophers in the Element of Etymologisation

Author: Marcin T. Zdrenka
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 128-144
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2016.02.10
PDF: kie/112/kie11210.pdf

The paper presents the problem of etymologisation (folk etymology), which involves the false genealogy of meanings of concepts. Exploration and “discovering“ of such false or projected meanings, as a result of the use of false genealogy has already been examined by specialists of language studies. However, it is important to note that etymologisation affects also philosophy. The paper attempts to characterize main features of this form of folk etymology and proposes to develop Hans Schnädelbach’s category of the philosophical “hermeneutic disease” (morbus hermeneuticus) to “etymological disease” (morbus etymologicus). This attempt helps to formulate the answer to the question why philosophers are tempted by etymologisations and why they so often succumb to this temptation. The main causes of this process revealed by philosophers are: the pursuit of surprise, which is the starting point for philosophical reflexion; the strong devotion to tradition and long history of their discipline; the permanent striving for both freshness and depth of philosophical language, and some kind of faith in the myth of the fundamental (antique or even older) source of all knowledge. Although the philosophical form of the folk etymology is recognized in the paper as a substantial threat, at the same time there is some hope that studies on etymologisation may become an inspiration for philosophers.

etymologisation folk etymology language of philosophy philosophical vocabulary hermeneutical turn morbus hermeneuticus

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Victim and Guardian: A Short Ethical Reconnaissance

Author: Marcin Jaranowski
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 145-153
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2016.02.11
PDF: kie/112/kie11211.pdf

The article Victim and Guardian: A Short Ethical Reconnaissance is a proposal for fundamental rethinking of the phenomenon of care and support in the context of the experience of evil. The author analyses the phenomenon of transitivity of evil, and describes suffering of a guardian as an extension of the harm done to the victim. He notices that the expectation of care occurring in a difficult situation is one of the fundamental claims in social life, and not receiving it is one of the most painful moral experiences. Finally, the author emphasizes the moral value of guardian’s participation in the defeat of the victim. He says that we do not need the notion of triumph over evil to recognize this value.

victim guardian care evil responsibility ethics

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Do Holistic Visions of Nature Enhance Ethical Relations between Man and Environment?

Author: Zbigniew Pietrzak
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 154-174
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2016.02.12
PDF: kie/112/kie11212.pdf

The visions of the natural world built by man also shape our relationship with respect to the environment. In the present paper I would like to demonstrate how these holistic ideas, like the Gaia Hypothesis, affect ethical relations with nature. Do they enhance the need to treat nature in accordance with ethics, are they ethically neutral, or do they convince us that man has no ethical obligations to the environment whatsoever? “The Gaia Hypothesis” can be ambivalent in this respect, but in the end it leaves no doubt that, even though other species do what man does, Gaia (biosphere) has a limited tolerance for negative effects of human activity. And although we are not able to annihilate the life on the Earth, we are certainly capable of destroying the conditions necessary for our subsistence.

threat pollution alchemy evolution the Gaia Hypothesis environment/nature ethics

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The Problem of “Stoic Fate” Or whether Herbert of Cherbury was a Lipsian2

Author: Adam Smrcz
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 177-193
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2016.02.13
PDF: kie/112/kie11213.pdf

In this paper I explore what the term “stoic fate” was supposed to mean in Edward Herbert of Cherbury’s De Veritate. Famously, the ancient stoics had divergent views regarding this question, hence early modern reconstructions of the concept could be based on different sources (and, consequently, could have different significations). My aim is to prove that the Herbertian sense follows that of Justus Lipsius. Keeping in mind that Herbert’s epistemology involved soteriological considerations as well, all this can not be regarded as a mere philological nuance, since although scholars tend to focus solely on the epistemological content of the work the whole project outlined in the De Veritate is grounded on the distinction between fate and providence.

Edward Herbert of Cherbury Justus Lipsius neo­stoicism divine providence stoic fate

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Locke’s Reading of Herbert’s De Veritate and His Critique of Common Notions

Author: Adam Grzeliński
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 194-207
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2016.02.14
PDF: kie/112/kie11214.pdf

The paper reconstructs John Locke’s critique of Edward Herbert’s conception of common notions presented in the Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1690). Though aimed at the epistemological significance of the term, the critique seems to miss the point, since due to the Platonic character of Herbert’s philosophy, the notions have also a metaphysical and religious significance overlooked by Locke. Thus the attack is justified only in part: for Herbert, the rationality of nature is understood as an ideal and not as a certain historic state of affairs, as Locke seems to suggest. It is an interesting feature of the discussion, that both the common notions and their critique is aimed at justification of religious rationality. The difference between both philosophers seems to have its roots in different understanding of knowledge. For Herbert it relates to an ideal, conceptual structure of reality, whereas for Locke it culminates in natural histories of cumulative character.

religious rationalism 17th century British philosophy empiricism idealism common notions Edward Herbert of Cherbury John Locke

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Multiculturalism and Liberal Democracy

Author: Andrzej Szahaj
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 209-220
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2016.02.15
PDF: kie/112/kie11215.pdf

The main goal of the article is to show the possible ways of thinking about the relation between multiculturalism and liberal democracy. Author of the article tries to present some troubles with reconciliation of such political culture and elements of multicultural ideology which supports rights of member of foreign (nonwestern) communities to manifest their cultural convictions freely. In his opinion that would be a little bit naïve to think that all elements of political culture connected with liberal democracy can be accepted by members of the communities in questions. That is why he articulates the thesis that some conflicts between them and people faithful to the ideas of liberal democracy are inevitable and that it cannot be found possible solution of these conflicts which can be gladly accepted by all sides. Someone will have to give up some parts of cultural heritage of a given community if we are supposed to live in peace together. Although the author of the article believes that this resignation should not be limited to only one side of the potential conflict he argues that a political culture of liberal democracy is so precious that its defenders should not abandon it for the sake of ideas of multicultural society even if this brings about some pain on the side of their interlocutors.

liberalism democracy Citizenship multiculturalism culture community

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Evelyn Fox Keller, The Mirage of a Space Between Nature and Nurture, Duke University Press, Durham-London 2010, pp. 107

Author: Tomasz Szymon Markiewka
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 223-226
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2016.02.16
PDF: kie/112/kie11216.pdf

REFERENCES:

  • Hacking, I. (2000), The Social Construction of What?, Harvard: Harvard University Press.
  • Keller, E.F. (2010), The Mirage of a Space Between Nature and Nurture, DurhamLondon: Duke University Press.
  • Pinker, S. (2002), The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of Human Nature, New York: Viking.

Ryan Patrick Hanley (ed.), Adam Smith. His Life, Thought and Legacy, Princeton Univeristy Press, Princeton-Oxford 2016, pp. 571

Author: Anna Markwart
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 227-233
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2016.02.17
PDF: kie/112/kie11217.pdf

REFERENCES:

  • Hacking, I. (2000), The Social Construction of What?, Harvard: Harvard University Press.
  • Keller, E.F. (2010), The Mirage of a Space Between Nature and Nurture, DurhamLondon: Duke University Press.
  • Pinker, S. (2002), The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of Human Nature, New York: Viking.

Bridging East and West. In the Search for a New Approach to Consciousness. Remarks on the sidelines of the book by Evan Thompson Waking, Dreaming, Being. Self and Consciousness in Neuroscience, Meditation, and Philosophy, Columbia University Press, New Yo

Author: Anita Pacholik-Żuromska
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 234-241
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2016.02.18
PDF: kie/112/kie11218.pdf

The aim of this paper is a short overview of the book of Evan Thompson Waking, Dreaming, Being. Self and Consciousness in Neuroscience, Meditation, and Philosophy, with some polemic remarks. Thompson presents an interesting approach to the problem of cognition, knowledge and self­knowledge the problems considered in philosophy, psychology, neurosciences, which if they interact create an interdisciplinary platform called “cognitive sciences”. However, Thompson proposes to bring on the debate within the field of a new discipline: contemplative neuroscience, for which he argues in the presented book. Using the methodology offered by this new kind of science he analyzes such phenomena as dream, perception, imagination, and even dying all of them in reference to the problem of what consciousness is.

consciousness Self dream perception self­-knowledge neurophenomenology computational neuroscience Evan Thompson

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