2016

Contents

Author: The Editors
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 5-6
DOI Address: -
PDF: kie/114/kie114toc.pdf

Contents

Author: The Editors
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 5-8
DOI Address: -
PDF: kie/113/kie113toc.pdf

Contents

Author: The Editors
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 5-6
DOI Address: -
PDF: kie/112/kie112toc.pdf

Contents

Author: The Editors
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 5-8
DOI Address: -
PDF: kie/111/kie111toc.pdf

Cultural Heritage and Knowledge Structures

Author: Roald Larsen
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 9-27
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2016.04.01
PDF: kie/114/kie11401.pdf

The purpose of this article is to use North Norwegian legends and show how these oral stories have been used in the education at the Institute for Teacher Education and Pedagogic, University of Tromsø - Norway’s arctic university since the time I started this project at the end of the 1990s period. Here, there will be given a definition and expansion for the types of legends that exists, what was stated about it in the lecture plan (L­97) at the time, and what created the basis for this research. An important part of this work was to collect legends in order to document this traditional material for later, as a contribution to North Norwegian cultural history and, thereby, as a gateway to establish knowledge structures.

legend sagn cultural heritage Education legend collecting lecture plan cultural history

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Local Dimension of Celebrations. Holidays as a Tool in Creating State Symbolic Space at Local Level-the Case Study of Poland

Author: Katarzyna Kącka
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 28-45
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2016.04.02
PDF: kie/114/kie11402.pdf

State celebrations, anniversaries of important historical events and their observance are one of the main channels of communication between ruling elite and society that shape the state symbolic space. In addition to establish­ ing memorial sites, erecting monuments, founding institutions focused on remembrance, they are the most important way to create a narrative of the state’s past. In Poland - regardless of time and political system - special attention was paid to creating a calendar of holidays and anniversaries, and the manner they were celebrated. These festivities were and are still considered to be fundamental tools used in Polish politics of history, both at state­wide and local level. Their importance in the regions can - depending on how the local elites exercise their powers - vary from much larger in relation to the central state level to entirely negligible. The aim of this study is to present mechanisms and tools used by local authorities in building an appropriate historical narrative using just those tools.

holidays politics of history symbolic space symbolic culture local authorities

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Viktor Orban’s Illiberal Democracy in the Indices of the Quality of Democracy

Author: Karolina Gawron-Tabor
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 46-62
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2016.04.03
PDF: kie/114/kie11403.pdf

The aim of the article is to analyse the assessment of Hungary presented in two democracy’s indices: the Freedom in the World Index and the Bertelsmann Stiffung Index in years 2010 - 2016. The research problem is to identify which of the elements shaping the democracy in Hungary in accordance with the indices have deteriorated. The research is based on the analysis of the content and the existing data. The evaluations of Hungary in the indices of democracy have deteriorated since 2010 when Orban and Fidesz won the parliamentary election and gained power (up to 2016). The changes introduced by Orban in the Constitutional Court and the judiciary, the adoption of a new Basic Law, a new electoral law and the media law cast a shadow over Hungarian democracy. Indices show that the four basic principles of a democratic state have been violated, namely 1) the rule of law, 2) the separation of authorities 3) free and fair elections, and 4) freedom of expression.

Orban Hungary illiberal democracy democracy’s indices democracy

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Kantian Normal Idea vs Santayana’s ‘Psychology’ of Defining Characters as Aesthetic Forms

Author: Krzysztof Wawrzonkowski
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 63-77
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2016.04.04
PDF: kie/114/kie11404.pdf

The objective of the presented article consists in the juxtaposition of two depictions of mechanisms of imagination which we use to create averaged images of all sensual experiences. The first of them is Kantian normal idea conducive to the construction of adherent beauty, whereas the second - Santayana’s concept of formation of a generic idea, aesthetic type or an ideal. It is my conviction that both these proposals are convergent, as they refer to the same method of functioning of the imagination, however they differ in certain details, as they are inscribed in nearly entirely opposite aesthetic concepts. However, Santayana’s theory of character creation goes further than Kant’s concept, as it exceeds the averaged image of the normal idea, and, while not being equivalent to Kantian aesthetic idea constituting a certain product of genius, it heads towards the idealisation of representations available to all people. The purpose behind Santayana’s concept proves to be more practical as compared to the solution proposed by Kant. In this depiction, we should recognise a universal mechanism of the imagination in the formation of characters as aesthetic forms, enabling a person to define his/her place and gain knowledge on the human world of attitudes, customs and ordinary behaviours.

Santayana Kant imagination normal idea adherent beauty literary character

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Mind Mapping as a Teaching Tool in Higher Education Language Learning Settings

Author: Lamara Kadagidze
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 78-88
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2016.04.05
PDF: kie/114/kie11405.pdf

Many instructors willing to undertake teaching in a foreign language are progressively noticing the need to improve the quality of classroom discourse and lecturing styles, so that students can capture and process the information delivered more efficiently. Mind­maps can be an important and effective asset to anyone who wants to learn a language. They are considered to be a great way to brainstorm and generate more ideas. They help to create a number of small ideas from one big idea, to see how different ideas could be connected together and to create a plan of action. They break from the traditional way of thinking when learning, and therefore they encourage creativity - and this can be achieved only when there are no restrictions, criticism and judging. The result should be a very creative, new solution to problems, a generation of original, relaxed and informal ideas. The article demonstrates how mind mapping technique can be used to improve language skills: reading, writing, speaking, and listening in higher education settings; moreover, it concerns positive and negative aspects of the use of mind mapping, purposes it may serve, implications, suggestions, and recommendations for mind mapping strategies for teachers and students.

mind­mapping technique teaching tool language skills research higher education settings

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Opportunities of Usage: Reflection on Subject and Space in Psychotherapy

Author: Marcela Kościańczuk
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 89-101
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2016.04.06
PDF: kie/114/kie11406.pdf

The article presents an interdisciplinary analysis of possible object’s usage in psychotherapy of adults. It is also focused on the meaning of the area where psychotherapy takes place. The text presents multidimensional view on psychotherapy, which is understood not just as psychological but also socio­cultural phenomenon. The article indicates also a “turn toward the thing” in contemporary humanistic and social studies. Material base of psychotherapy is very important in establishing (crucial for positive impact of psychotherapy) good enough therapeutic relation. Theoretical reflections which bind cultural studies and psychological perspective are crowned by case study of family therapy in which objects and place of therapy were important elements of therapeutic process.

object psychotherapy therapeutic relation therapy in patient’s house

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Games as a Tool in Education. Experiment in Teaching/Learning Competences by Student in the School

Author: Małgorzata Banasiak
Author: Małgorzata Karczmarzyk
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 102-112
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2016.04.07
PDF: kie/114/kie11407.pdf

The popularity of games, both computer ones and those with a board, does not surprise anyone these days. They are played by both youngest children as well as adults. It may thus be worthwhile to introduce games into academic education as one of educational activities. For thanks to a game, one can better understand a given problem, actively participate in its resolution, but also study material from a given lesson unit. Whether educational games work out as tools in educating students and whether they can be recommended to learners at the primary level of education - it will turn out in the further part of the article. Our intention is to carry out an experiment in which we wish to compare two groups of students, one of which (the experimental group) is using games during their classes, whilst the other one (the control group) is not using such games and acquires material in the traditional form.

game teaching methods student

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Is Russia Back to the Game?

Author: Agnieszka Bryc
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 115-124
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2016.04.08
PDF: kie/114/kie11408.pdf

Russia is believed to be back on the world stage. President Vladimir Putin’s policy based on the idea of conservatism, an assertiveness towards the West and the desperation to become an important global player has successfully lifted Russia’s significance in the international scene. To regain the status of a superpower Russia has developed a strategy of counterweighing politically the West and particularly the United States.

Russia Putin world order the West confrontation

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Events of August ’91 as an Expression of Political Disobedience in the Process of Shaping Civil Conduct

Author: Anna Jach
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 125-139
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2016.04.09
PDF: kie/114/kie11409.pdf

Civil disobedience is the attitude which in the 20th century proved to be the only effective form of resistance to authoritarian regimes. So it was in the case of the events of August ’91 when the Soviet society objected to the activities of the State Committee on the State of Emergency. It would not have been possible without the reform programme known as perestroika initiated by the last USSR leader Mikhail Gorbachev. Thanks to perestroika and the accompanying glasnost transparency of socio­political life the previously apathetic and alienated Soviet society felt responsible for their own life and for the fate of the State. By opposing the rebels through passive resistance, the citizens proved to the leaders of their own country, to the world, and above all, to themselves that they were aware of their rights and responsibilities. The process of socio­political socialization stimulated the development of civil society in the Soviet Union.

USSR Yanayev putsch coup d’état civil disobedience Russia civil society perestroika

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Military Education in the Russian Federation

Author: Natalia Olszanecka
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 140-149
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2016.04.10
PDF: kie/114/kie11410.pdf

In 2008, before the conflict with Georgia began, no one was able to predict the readiness or effectiveness of the Russian Army. A few years later during the military campaign in Syria, the Russian Armed Forces confirmed their standing as one of the best armies of the world, demonstrating a high level of technical potential and combat training. Between 2008 and 2012 Russia’s military education became one of the best and most prestigious forms of education in Russia. The main purpose of this article is to show the changes that have occurred in the Russian military education since the beginning of military reform (in 2008) to 2012. The main research problem is to answer the question: how have the changes in military education and in the training system strengthened Russia’s military potential?

military education Russian Federation subjects military power training system

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Hybridity of Ukrainian Society in the years 2000 - 2012. Between Political Activity and Political Apathy

Author: Maryana Prokop
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 150-161
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2016.04.11
PDF: kie/114/kie11411.pdf

It is difficult to characterize Ukrainian society as fully active or passive, as, on the one hand, public participation and involvement in political life as well as large mobilization in situations where civil interests are violated are clearly visible, and, on the other, we can notice a decrease of political activity as a consequence of these events. The aim of the present work was to analyze and explain the specificity of the functioning of Ukrainian society in the years 2000 – 2012. The study was conducted with the author’s own designed tool based on the concept of ideal types developed by Max Weber. The analysis of political apathy used a dissonant category of political activity and the conclusions were drawn on the basis of whether the legislation of Ukraine promotes an active attitude of society and the extent to which the provisions of the law are reflected in real involvement of Ukrainian citizens in political matters. The results show that participation of Ukrainian society in different forms of political activity does not entail its full realization, while the fact that Ukrainian citizens got involved in public affairs excludes the recognition of Ukrainian society as fully apathetic. Thus, in the case of Ukraine, we are dealing with a hybrid society characterized by political activity with elements of political apathy.

Ukrainian society hybrid society political apathy political participation Political activity

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The Views of the Polish Political Class on the Institution of a Nationwide Referendum

Author: Zbigniew Witkowski
Author: Maciej Serowaniec
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 165-174
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2016.04.12
PDF: kie/114/kie11412.pdf

In the light of art. 4 of the Constitution of the Republic of Poland, the nation as a sovereign has the right to steer the state’s policy, express an opinion on governing of the state, as well as co­decide with the state organs in the governing process. The nation is a source of power and may assume the role of an arbitrator in conflict situations between constitutional state organs but also in disputes between the subjects of the political scene, which is reflected in the targeting of the activities of public authorities according to the will expressed via a referendum. Due to the introduction of the principle of nation sovereignty in the Constitution of the Republic of Poland, it seemed that a nationwide referendum was bound to become an important instrument allowing the expression of opinions and formulation of decisions by the sovereign.

the principle of nation sovereignty nationwide referendum the Polish Constitutional Tribunal the nation as a sovereign public authorities Polish political class art. 4 of the Constitution of the Republic of Poland

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The Evolution of Polish National Symbols on the Example of the Flag and Anthem

Author: Sabina Grabowska
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 175-186
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2016.04.13
PDF: kie/114/kie11413.pdf

The theme of this article is the evolution of the Polish flag and the anthem. These symbols were accompanied by Polish people in the most important moments of their lives. They give immigrants a sense of constant ties with their homeland. Knowledge of the history of these national symbols is important to understand the importance and the need for such things as the national flag and the national anthem

flag anthem Poland national symbol

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Social Dimension of the Judicature of the Court of Justice. Analysis on the Basis of Judgment in the Stehcempt Case (C-277/14)

Author: Radosław Potorski
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 187-199
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2016.04.14
PDF: kie/114/kie11414.pdf

Socio­legal situation of Poland is now a lot different from the one before 2004. Membership of our country to an integrative organization with such an advanced character as the European Union causes that it is necessary to take a wider look at the issue of functioning of the political system patterns, as well as, as a consequence, at entities and methods which may be taken into account during public decision making. Here one of the most interesting issues, and as it seems still least learned aspects of the EU governance is proceeding participation of the judicial sector of the EU within political life of the member states. Aim of the author is to verify a research assumption that the CJ jurisdiction has a serious social dimension, noticeable also for Polish nonpublic actors. According to the principle of the CJ judicature, today named as quasiprecedent, each nonpublic body may point to previous judgements of the Court each time it assumes that it might have positive effects. But when we take into account how large that source is today possibility of such situation is high.

Court of Justice European Union Polish citizens non­state entities

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Emblem of the Polish Republic as Part of the National Culture: The Genesis of the Symbol

Author: Radosław Grabowski
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 200-209
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2016.04.15
PDF: kie/114/kie11415.pdf

The theme of this article is the evolution of the Polish national emblem. Without knowledge of the genesis and history of this national symbol, it is difficult to understand the value of education in terms of nationality and the sense of national unity. Appearance, shape, colour evolved due to the political centrifugation in the country, but always and invariably meant Poland as the home of those who lived in the country and emigrated.

national emblem Poland coat of arms national symbols

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Polonezköy

Author: Joanna Marszałek-Kawa
Author: Ahmet Burak
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 9-20
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2016.02.01
PDF: kie/112/kie11201.pdf

There is a village on the Asian shore of the Bosphorus, initially called Adampol, but now known as Polonezköy. The Polish village is located 40 km. east of Istanbul, and was established by Poles in the nineteenth century as a shelter for the country’s immigrant community. This bound the destinies of many Poles with Turkey in the nineteenth century. Once people described the village „Soplicowo on the Bosporus”. Although the Polish village in Turkey has lost much of its original character through time, it remains one of the most extraordinary centres of Polish immigrants in the world (Wyszynska, 2016). This paper analyzes the main problems in Polonezköy and investigates how Polonezköy takes an important place in bilateral relations between Turkey and Poland.

Polonezköy­-Adampol Turkey Istanbul

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Globalization and the Third Research Program of Multiple Modernities

Author: Gerhard Preyer
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 21-42
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2016.02.02
PDF: kie/112/kie11202.pdf

Shmuel N. Eisenstadt has fundamentally modified the classical theory of modernization. Over the course of his work, which is connected with the changes of sociological theory since the 1950s, he has executed a turn from the comparative analysis of institutions to the research program of comparative civilizations. The research program of multiple modernities has emerged out of this attentional shift coming from the First Research Program 1986, which led to “multiple modernities” and to the Second Research Program 2003. A key milestone was the critique of the theory of structural differentiation as the main process underlying the socio­structural evolution of societies; this began with The Political Systems of Empires (1963), along with the development of convergence theories of modernization, which have had impact on contemporary sociological theory beginning with that same book. In the meantime, the research program of multiple modernities now continues into the Third Research Program of Multiple Modernities, Membership, and Globalization 2016 and its implementation (Preyer and Sussman, 2016a, b). Firstly, I will show how the program seeks to sketch an updated vision of the theoretical systematization of research on globalization since the 1990s. Secondly, I will go on to sketch the foci of research within the Third Research Program in our era of globalization; finally, I shall outline some consequences of changes in the research situation within sociological theory.

globalization multiple modernities sociology of membership hybridization creolization multi­culturalism global studies postmodern society development theory collective identities

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Nature, Man and Logos: An Outline of the Anthropology of the Sophists

Author: Zbigniew Nerczuk
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 43-52
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2016.02.03
PDF: kie/112/kie11203.pdf

The paper aims at reconstructing the fundamentals of the sophistic anthropology. Contrary to the recognized view of the humanistic shift which took place in the sophistic thought, there is evidence that the sophists were continuously concerned with the problems of philosophy of nature. The difference between the sophists and their Presocratic predecessors was that their criticism of the philosophical tradition and the transformative answers given to the old questions were the basis and the starting point of the “ethical” and “rhetorical” part of their intellectual activity. This naturalistic perspective is reflected in their research in the field of medicine and biology, in the discussion about “the human nature”, and in their interest in the individual physiological and mental conditions, which determine the state of the human body and the behaviour of a man. The sophists pioneered in linguistic, rhetorical, and philological studies. To enhance the power of persuasion, they investigated how various mental conditions influenced cognitive processes and physiological reactions. Thus they started a thorough examination of the human psyche, initiating the field of psychology. Although the originality of the sophists in each of the aforementioned aspects is undeniable, a complete picture of the sophists can only be achieved by examining the sources of their thought: the Presocratic philosophical tradition, Hippocratic medicine, and earlier literary tradition.

anthropology ancient Greek philosophy Presocratics the sophists theory of cognition rhetoric

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David Hume’s Theory of Action

Author: Justyna Van den Abbeel
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 53-65
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2016.02.04
PDF: kie/112/kie11204.pdf

The main goal of this paper is to reconstruct David Hume’s theory of action from the perspective of the second book Of the Passion in his work A Treatise of Human Nature. My paper will proceed in three steps. In the first part I present the main assumptions of Hume’s views on action together with a general outline of his theory. I show that for Hume action has a uniform character and that there is a constant relation between action and the motive which can be understood as desire or aversion. Next, in the second part, the main elements involved in the process of human activity will be outlined, such as: passions, will, liberty, and reason. Although Hume emphasizes that the passions are the main motive of action, since they have the power to initiate and withhold action, reason also plays an important role. In order to come to a better understanding, I will consider the functions which these elements are playing in human action and some of the problematic issues which are connected with them such as, whether each of the passions can motivate a person to action, what the relationship between passions and will is, and what kind of relation between passions and reason can be found. Finally, in the third and last part of my paper, I will conclude with a schematic outline of human action and the relation between different components engaged in the process of action.

motivation theory of action passion reason will liberty necessity human nature

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Mary Wollstonecraft and the Beginnings of Pro-animal Education

Author: Barbara Grabowska
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 66-78
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2016.02.05
PDF: kie/112/kie11205.pdf

Amidst the many topics important for the shaping of character of adolescents in Original Stories, Mary Wollstonecraft places such important issues as our attitude towards animals. She wants to convince the readers that not only should we not hurt animals but also offer them our aid. The education that sensitises us to the fate of animals is an important element of moral education. Being kind for the beings of other species is what makes us better, more compassionate. And reversely being cruel towards animals turns us into brutes capable of hurting also people. Tormenting animals is moreover inconsistent with God’s will and leads to the infliction of completely unnecessary and senseless suffering. Which is why it deserves severe condemnation.

animals Education suffering virtue religion

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Sartre’s Critique of Freud’s Conception of Emotions

Author: Marta Agata Chojnacka
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 79-90
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2016.02.06
PDF: kie/112/kie11206.pdf

The purpose of this article is to reconstruct Sartre’s critique of selected elements of Freud’s psychoanalysis as far as the emotions theory is concerned. I am analysing those assumptions of Freud’s teachings which became subjected to Sartre’s critique and why. I also point out the fact that some of the elements of psychoanalysis where emphasised by Sartre as important for the development of the emotions theory. My deliberations are based largely on Sartre’s Sketch for a Theory of the Emotion.

emotions psychoanalysis Sartre Freud censor unconsciousness phenomenology

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Left and Right-Libertarianism

Author: Dariusz Juruś
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 91-101
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2016.02.07
PDF: kie/112/kie11207.pdf

In the paper I discuss theoretical differences between left and right­libertarianism. (I will skip the specific and practical issues which differ left and right­libertarians, including among others the minorities and immigration policies or affirmative action. I assume that practical solutions suggested by the followers of both positions stem from their theoretical assumptions.) I will focus on two issues which determine the fundamental difference between left and right­libertarianism. These are property and equality. I compare standpoints of some leftlibertarians with the positions of rightlibertarians represented by Murray Rothbard, concerning property and equality. I conclude that the main and fundamental difference between leftand rightlibertarians concerns equality. Leftlibertarians are egalitarians whereas rightlibertarians are antiegalitarians. I also argue that egalitarian position is not compatible with the notion of full selfownership, which leftlibertarians advocate for.

equality property libertarianism natural resources redistribution

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Embodied Criticism. Theoretical Foundations of Cognitive Poetics

Author: Kamila Żukowska
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 102-111
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2016.02.08
PDF: kie/112/kie11208.pdf

The aim of the paper is to discuss the cognitive approach to metaphor launched by Lakoff and Johnson, which turns out to be also the key question to the problem of intersubjective communicability of literary work. Based on this approach, the literature can simply be considered a kind of language using spatial metaphors with additional emotional content.

cognitive science literary theory poetics metaphor

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Towards Explanation of the Natural Origins of Content

Author: Daniel Żuromski
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 112-127
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2016.02.09
PDF: kie/112/kie11209.pdf

How should we understand intentionality in the physical world? This question may be further divided into at least two other: How to understand intentional states in the physical world? (And if we refer to the entirety of such states as the mind then our question will take on the following form: How should we understand the mind in the physical world) and How to understand intentional content in the physical world? One of the most important projects in modern philosophy of mind and cognitive science consists in naturalisation of the content of mental states. The prevalent concept in the thus understood content naturalisation programme was the reductionist conception. In the article I present one of the proposals of content naturalisation by Daniel D. Hutto and Glenda Satne from the article The Natural Origins of Content. On the one hand, they reject the project of naturalising the content of mental states which is conceived as a reduction of semantic properties of contents of mental states solely to physical causative relations, properties or social mechanisms. On the other hand, Daniel D. Hutto and Glenda Satne present a research programme which does not seek a reductionist explanation of content but rather examines how the content emerged in the natural world – the natural origins of content. Although the authors describe the main framework of such a programme, they do not venture to answer the question whether such a theory even exists. In this article I am going to present the concept of Michael Tomaello most explicitly expressed in his Natural History of Human Thinking as a promising example of such a theory.

naturalising content the Shared Intentionality Hypothesis the natural origins of content Michael Tomasello Ur-­intentionality Relaxed Naturalism

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Morbus Etymologicus? Philosophers in the Element of Etymologisation

Author: Marcin T. Zdrenka
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 128-144
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2016.02.10
PDF: kie/112/kie11210.pdf

The paper presents the problem of etymologisation (folk etymology), which involves the false genealogy of meanings of concepts. Exploration and “discovering“ of such false or projected meanings, as a result of the use of false genealogy has already been examined by specialists of language studies. However, it is important to note that etymologisation affects also philosophy. The paper attempts to characterize main features of this form of folk etymology and proposes to develop Hans Schnädelbach’s category of the philosophical “hermeneutic disease” (morbus hermeneuticus) to “etymological disease” (morbus etymologicus). This attempt helps to formulate the answer to the question why philosophers are tempted by etymologisations and why they so often succumb to this temptation. The main causes of this process revealed by philosophers are: the pursuit of surprise, which is the starting point for philosophical reflexion; the strong devotion to tradition and long history of their discipline; the permanent striving for both freshness and depth of philosophical language, and some kind of faith in the myth of the fundamental (antique or even older) source of all knowledge. Although the philosophical form of the folk etymology is recognized in the paper as a substantial threat, at the same time there is some hope that studies on etymologisation may become an inspiration for philosophers.

etymologisation folk etymology language of philosophy philosophical vocabulary hermeneutical turn morbus hermeneuticus

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Victim and Guardian: A Short Ethical Reconnaissance

Author: Marcin Jaranowski
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 145-153
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2016.02.11
PDF: kie/112/kie11211.pdf

The article Victim and Guardian: A Short Ethical Reconnaissance is a proposal for fundamental rethinking of the phenomenon of care and support in the context of the experience of evil. The author analyses the phenomenon of transitivity of evil, and describes suffering of a guardian as an extension of the harm done to the victim. He notices that the expectation of care occurring in a difficult situation is one of the fundamental claims in social life, and not receiving it is one of the most painful moral experiences. Finally, the author emphasizes the moral value of guardian’s participation in the defeat of the victim. He says that we do not need the notion of triumph over evil to recognize this value.

victim guardian care evil responsibility ethics

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Do Holistic Visions of Nature Enhance Ethical Relations between Man and Environment?

Author: Zbigniew Pietrzak
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 154-174
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2016.02.12
PDF: kie/112/kie11212.pdf

The visions of the natural world built by man also shape our relationship with respect to the environment. In the present paper I would like to demonstrate how these holistic ideas, like the Gaia Hypothesis, affect ethical relations with nature. Do they enhance the need to treat nature in accordance with ethics, are they ethically neutral, or do they convince us that man has no ethical obligations to the environment whatsoever? “The Gaia Hypothesis” can be ambivalent in this respect, but in the end it leaves no doubt that, even though other species do what man does, Gaia (biosphere) has a limited tolerance for negative effects of human activity. And although we are not able to annihilate the life on the Earth, we are certainly capable of destroying the conditions necessary for our subsistence.

threat pollution alchemy evolution the Gaia Hypothesis environment/nature ethics

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The Problem of “Stoic Fate” Or whether Herbert of Cherbury was a Lipsian2

Author: Adam Smrcz
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 177-193
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2016.02.13
PDF: kie/112/kie11213.pdf

In this paper I explore what the term “stoic fate” was supposed to mean in Edward Herbert of Cherbury’s De Veritate. Famously, the ancient stoics had divergent views regarding this question, hence early modern reconstructions of the concept could be based on different sources (and, consequently, could have different significations). My aim is to prove that the Herbertian sense follows that of Justus Lipsius. Keeping in mind that Herbert’s epistemology involved soteriological considerations as well, all this can not be regarded as a mere philological nuance, since although scholars tend to focus solely on the epistemological content of the work the whole project outlined in the De Veritate is grounded on the distinction between fate and providence.

Edward Herbert of Cherbury Justus Lipsius neo­stoicism divine providence stoic fate

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Locke’s Reading of Herbert’s De Veritate and His Critique of Common Notions

Author: Adam Grzeliński
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 194-207
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2016.02.14
PDF: kie/112/kie11214.pdf

The paper reconstructs John Locke’s critique of Edward Herbert’s conception of common notions presented in the Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1690). Though aimed at the epistemological significance of the term, the critique seems to miss the point, since due to the Platonic character of Herbert’s philosophy, the notions have also a metaphysical and religious significance overlooked by Locke. Thus the attack is justified only in part: for Herbert, the rationality of nature is understood as an ideal and not as a certain historic state of affairs, as Locke seems to suggest. It is an interesting feature of the discussion, that both the common notions and their critique is aimed at justification of religious rationality. The difference between both philosophers seems to have its roots in different understanding of knowledge. For Herbert it relates to an ideal, conceptual structure of reality, whereas for Locke it culminates in natural histories of cumulative character.

religious rationalism 17th century British philosophy empiricism idealism common notions Edward Herbert of Cherbury John Locke

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Multiculturalism and Liberal Democracy

Author: Andrzej Szahaj
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 209-220
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2016.02.15
PDF: kie/112/kie11215.pdf

The main goal of the article is to show the possible ways of thinking about the relation between multiculturalism and liberal democracy. Author of the article tries to present some troubles with reconciliation of such political culture and elements of multicultural ideology which supports rights of member of foreign (nonwestern) communities to manifest their cultural convictions freely. In his opinion that would be a little bit naïve to think that all elements of political culture connected with liberal democracy can be accepted by members of the communities in questions. That is why he articulates the thesis that some conflicts between them and people faithful to the ideas of liberal democracy are inevitable and that it cannot be found possible solution of these conflicts which can be gladly accepted by all sides. Someone will have to give up some parts of cultural heritage of a given community if we are supposed to live in peace together. Although the author of the article believes that this resignation should not be limited to only one side of the potential conflict he argues that a political culture of liberal democracy is so precious that its defenders should not abandon it for the sake of ideas of multicultural society even if this brings about some pain on the side of their interlocutors.

liberalism democracy Citizenship multiculturalism culture community

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Evelyn Fox Keller, The Mirage of a Space Between Nature and Nurture, Duke University Press, Durham-London 2010, pp. 107

Author: Tomasz Szymon Markiewka
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 223-226
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2016.02.16
PDF: kie/112/kie11216.pdf

REFERENCES:

  • Hacking, I. (2000), The Social Construction of What?, Harvard: Harvard University Press.
  • Keller, E.F. (2010), The Mirage of a Space Between Nature and Nurture, DurhamLondon: Duke University Press.
  • Pinker, S. (2002), The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of Human Nature, New York: Viking.

Ryan Patrick Hanley (ed.), Adam Smith. His Life, Thought and Legacy, Princeton Univeristy Press, Princeton-Oxford 2016, pp. 571

Author: Anna Markwart
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 227-233
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2016.02.17
PDF: kie/112/kie11217.pdf

REFERENCES:

  • Hacking, I. (2000), The Social Construction of What?, Harvard: Harvard University Press.
  • Keller, E.F. (2010), The Mirage of a Space Between Nature and Nurture, DurhamLondon: Duke University Press.
  • Pinker, S. (2002), The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of Human Nature, New York: Viking.

Bridging East and West. In the Search for a New Approach to Consciousness. Remarks on the sidelines of the book by Evan Thompson Waking, Dreaming, Being. Self and Consciousness in Neuroscience, Meditation, and Philosophy, Columbia University Press, New Yo

Author: Anita Pacholik-Żuromska
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 234-241
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2016.02.18
PDF: kie/112/kie11218.pdf

The aim of this paper is a short overview of the book of Evan Thompson Waking, Dreaming, Being. Self and Consciousness in Neuroscience, Meditation, and Philosophy, with some polemic remarks. Thompson presents an interesting approach to the problem of cognition, knowledge and self­knowledge the problems considered in philosophy, psychology, neurosciences, which if they interact create an interdisciplinary platform called “cognitive sciences”. However, Thompson proposes to bring on the debate within the field of a new discipline: contemplative neuroscience, for which he argues in the presented book. Using the methodology offered by this new kind of science he analyzes such phenomena as dream, perception, imagination, and even dying all of them in reference to the problem of what consciousness is.

consciousness Self dream perception self­-knowledge neurophenomenology computational neuroscience Evan Thompson

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Wielofazowy proces instytucjonalizacji regionu

Author: Jacek Poniedziałek
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 11-33
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2016.01.01
PDF: kie/111/kie11101.pdf

The aim of the article is to characterized the theory of institutionalization of the region. Its author, Finnish geographer Anssi Paasi, described region as an effect of multiphase process that takes shape of an institutionalization. Such process starts when region has its territorial frame (territorial phase), then symbolic images are created and located in people’s consciousness inside and outside of the region (symbolic phase). In the next phase (called an institutional) symbolic images are transformed into formal institutions (law, strategies, organizations). In that phase regional actors operate in the field of a regional discourse. Region is a sociospatial phenomenon, a place where symbolic and institutional acting between different regional actors takes place. It is a constant process of legitimization specific images of regions, which is used to create a brand of the region and structuring the regional identity of people living in the region. The moment a regional identity and a regional brand is created by regional institutions is defined as a full phase of institutionalisation. Paasi’s theory is an important and interesting proposal, which can enrich the sociological surveys of the region, but it is necessary to supplement it. The process of institutionalization of the region involves all regional actors, Paasi argues that only formal organizations. Additionally, this process is dependent on the internal and external context and on the history of the region. These complements enriches heuristic value of the theory characterised in the article.

Ansii Paasi sociology of region theory of institutionalisation regional identity region

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Konsumpcja w ujęciu studiów kulturowych

Author: Łukasz Iwasiński
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 34-52
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2016.01.02
PDF: kie/111/kie11102.pdf

Post­Marxist perspective perceived consumption primarily as an instrument of alienation. Cultural studies offered a different view. Focusing on using and reconstructing (both symbolic and physical) of goods, they argued that consumption may be a mechanism of authentic expression, a way of articulating consumer’s personal meanings. Cultural studies also demonstrated that consumers, through the process of consumption, can actively manifest their resistance to the market (or any imposed ideology). The paper traces the development of reflection on consumption within cultural studies, deriving from the work of Stuart Hall and Michel De Certeau, through the writings on subcultural and popcultural (in the sense of John Fiske) consumption, to contemporary subversive activities. It reveals the broad application of the notion of consumption for the purpose of describing contemporary social reality. The text discusses the concept of tactics and strategy, incorporation, as well as various forms of subversion. The author illustrates these concepts with observed examples or cases obtained from desk research. The paper examines the opposition potential of consumption, considers the cultural and social changes resulting from certain styles of consumption. It also poses the question of the status of consumer in today’s market. It offers different ways of interpreting the above problems present in the area of cultural studies.

subversion tactics pop culture subculture cultural studies strategy consumption

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Przeciw pewności Karla Poppera Zmagania z koniecznością

Author: Marcin Kilanowski
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 53-67
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2016.01.03
PDF: kie/111/kie11103.pdf

All the time, we encounter social, political, or economic crises. Those crises were not and are not a sheer result of poorly designed and malfunctioning state institutions, supposed to control (or not) the sphere of individual activities. This is what we are presented with as their cause. This, however, is not a complete picture of the situation. Crises occur also due to inadequate stressing of the categories which have become central for our societies, as Karl Popper pinpoints. In The Open Society and Its Enemies, he claims that it is our attachment to thinking that there is a one history, progress, pursuit of power and glory, as measures of individual success in the hostile world, that contributes to the re­occurrence of crises and the violence that accompanies them. We live focused on abstract categories and interpretations detached from the everyday life experience. In consequence, we still have to struggle with the phenomenon of exploiting individuals, we still do not create opportunities for satisfying their needs and space for working out solutions which would aid us in tackling the emerging problems. As Popper preaches, if we want to break free from the limitations of our minds so as to act differently, as fully free, self­realized and responsible, we have to try to verify our beliefs, even if it turns out that we should abandon them. This essay is another attempt at presenting the crucial aspects of Popper’s thought that are particularly difficult to comprehend and accept: namely, that there is no history independent of our doing, there are only our descriptions; there is no progress; it is us that create history without even being aware of that.

action selfrealisation historical necessity responsibility progress criticism ppsy

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Biblioterapia integralna

Author: Agnieszka Miernik
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 68-78
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2016.01.04
PDF: kie/111/kie11104.pdf

The main objective of my dissertation is to introduce the assumptions of the Jungian depth psychology to the bibliotherapeutic process. Bibliotherapy as an interdisciplinary method using psychology and literary studies enriched with the theory of integral psychology formulates a new theoretical perspective and constitutes a proposal of a holistic view of bibliotherapy. The extension of the theoretical basis of bibliotherapy will help to augment the therapeutic effect, activate unawareness (the sphere neglected in school education), and strengthen psyche. Integral bibliotherapy will create conditions to expand the dialogue between the rational side and unaware one, and it will contribute to a positive stimulation of the integration processes. Providing archetypal patterns reflecting the rules of life in culture, and drawing attention to the regulatory role of literary works, will enrich both the intellectual and spiritual side of the development of the participant of the bibliotherapeutic process. Archetypal content present in literary texts studied by the participant according to the bibliotherapeutic procedure will achieve an integral orientation focused on the humanistic dimension of existence.

bibliotherapy identification depth psychology unawareness archetypes catharsis insight symbol individuation

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Podstawowe terminy pedagogiczne w języku angielskim w kontekście pedagogiki polskiej

Author: Anna Fitak
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 79-100
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2016.01.05
PDF: kie/111/kie11105.pdf

This article covers the basic terms in educational sciences in English and their equivalents in Polish, including definitions, difficulties in the selection of appropriate equivalent and linguistic traps which may influence on how the particular term is interpreted in the context of a text it is contained within and both Polish and American/British educational reality. The purpose of this paper is to increase awareness of a Polish reader of education­related texts that have been translated from English in terms of issues concerning meanings and interpretation, to make the Polish authors of education­related texts more sensitive to such issues and to provide them with a basis to be used when they create their own works which are meant to be populated in the multilingual environment of educationists or when they refer to the English literature in educational sciences in Polish books and articles.

language of educational science educational terminology text on education discourse analysis dictionary of education Education higher education communication in science

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Problem z prze-pisaniem Teoretyczne podstawy refleksji postkolonialnej

Author: Bartłomiej Krzysztan
Year of publication: 2015
Source: Show
Pages: 101-114
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2016.01.06
PDF: kie/111/kie11106.pdf

The collapse of Eastern Bloc equivalent with disappearance of the Second World left great political and geographical sphere in the ‘vacuum of ideas’. A priori the Postcommunist space has been included into transition and transformation studies discourses. In principle following the scientific fashion whole former space of Eastern Bloc has been classified as the developing consolidating democracies with neoliberal model of economy. Futuristic presumptions from the beginning of 90s after 25 years required additional critical perspective and revision. Social facts analysis is emphasizing the mistaken and limited contexts of transitology and in parallel leads to reflection why postcolonial potential of the sphere is by postcolonial theory omitting. Paper is delivering the analyze of the significant obstacles for postcolonial rewriting of the history of postcommunist space amid others the role of Marxism, importance of experience, reductionist character of transition studies and wrong interpretation of the basic assumptions of postcolonialism. Article is aiming to describe those crucial barriers which led to the ignoring of the achievements of postcolonial critique in the analysis of cultural, social and political conditions of former Second World.

postcommunism transtion studies theory rewriting marxism postcolonial critique and theory

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Biografia artystyczna i mit (na przykładzie Papuszy J. Kos-Krauze i K. Krauzego)

Author: Ewelina Wejbert-Wąsiewicz
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 117-139
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2016.01.07
PDF: kie/111/kie11107.pdf

The Subject of the study are cinema biographies of artists. The main point of discussion is the “directed biography”, popular biography, existing in wide reception for example polish movie Papusza directed by Joanna Kos­Krauze and Krzysztof Krauze. In the paper used the method of analysis and comparison of various available sources and documents: scientific biography, interviews, press releases, reports and documentaries; particularly inspiring was the method of Panofsky. The aim of the article is not uncovering the truth biographical reality, but its interpretation in the form of ideas, visions of artists in the eyes of other artists (directors, screenwriters). There are important issues is the mythologizing and demythologization elements in a film about Papusza and also functions work: knowledge, education. Aesthetic values are not the subject of research in itself, but they can’t be overlooked because the analysis of image and analysis of content movie’s reminds analysis of discourse, because of the focus on intertextual relations.

biography myth art artist­-women Papusza Romany culture

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Kultura fizyczna w reedukacji osób odbywających karę pozbawienia wolności -motywacja skazanych do udziału w programach z zakresu kultury fizycznej i sportu

Author: Anetta Jaworska
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 140-158
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2016.01.08
PDF: kie/111/kie11108.pdf

In studies seeking motivated prisoners to physical activity while serving sentence in prison, were used the questionnaire methods. Researches group were the men who are physical active (N=121), aged 22 to 55 years. Most of the respondents were men with primary or secondary, and vocational education (over 90 %). The results showed that the most important role in participating in physical exercise in prison is motivation to maintain contentment and satisfaction with life, and exercises are primarily a form of entertainment and meaningful full time. Important themes are also making exercise motives maintain contact with a wider group of people. However, inmates differ significantly in terms of motivation to participate in activities depending on the type of physical exercise.

physical education prison reeducation motivation

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Zadowolenie z życia w kontekście perspektyw czasowych i struktury wartości-porównanie międzykulturowe studentów z Polski i Ugandy

Author: Józef Maciuszek
Author: Kinga Tucholska
Author: Anna Kawula
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 161-179
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2016.01.09
PDF: kie/111/kie11109.pdf

Research problem: The focus of the research was to determine the differences and connections in subjective well­being, time perspective and values among groups from various cultures and socio­economic status. The samples of Polish and Ugandan population, which are highly diverse geographically, socially, economically and culturally, were examined and compared in the study. Participants: The Polish data were collected from 58 management students (45 F, 13 M) from Jagiellonian University in Krakow; mean age M=20.21 years old, SD=1.10. The Ugandan data were collected from 47 management students (28 F, 19 M) in similar age from Makerere University in Kampala and Fort Portal. Measures: Respondents from Uganda completed the Subjective Well­Being Scale (SWLS) by Diener, the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI) and the Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ) by Schwartz. The original versions of methods, written in English (which is official language in Uganda) were used. In Poland were used version of SWLS adapted by Juczyński, ZTPI adapted by Cybis, Rowiński and Przepiórka, and Polish version of PVQ adapted by Cieciuch and Zaleski. Results: Statistical analysis carried out on Polish and Ugandan sample survey data revealed statistically significant differences in time perspective and in basic personal values, but not in subjective wellbeing. The results were interpreted in the context of specific social, economic, and cultural conditions and discussed with reference to previous findings.

satisfaction with life time perspective cross­cultural comparisons students

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Związek zaangażowania w studiowanie i wypalenia studiami z osiągnięciami akademickimi

Author: Konrad Kulikowski
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 180-196
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2016.01.10
PDF: kie/111/kie11110.pdf

This study addresses the question how students’ engagement and burnout are related to academic achievement the grade point average and the number of passed exams. The study involved 205 students. Multiple regression analysis indicated that burnout is direct significant predictor of grade point average, but the engagement is not. Relation between students’ engagement and the grade point average was mediated by level of burnout. Further analysis revealed that students who have passed all the exams in the first term were characterized by lower level of burnout than students who have not passed all the exams in the first term. However, students from both groups did not differ, in the level of study engagement. The results indicate that high academic achievement is related to the lack of a burnout rather than the presence of engagement. Results also show that the grade point average and the number of passed exams are poor indicators of the level of students’ engagement.

engagement burnout academic achievement grade point average

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Relacja dziecko-rodzic w perspektywie gry komputerowej. Wyniki badania nad obecnością gier wideo w rodzinie

Author: Damian Gałuszka
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 197-216
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2016.01.11
PDF: kie/111/kie11111.pdf

Video games are an important part of contemporary culture and economy, since the number of video game users is constantly increasing, part of that group consists of children. Socialization of young gamers largely takes place in the family. The purpose of this article is to present the conclusions brought by the research on role of video games in the life of the modern family. The study focuses in particular on the issue of technological and cultural competence of children and parents. The research was conducted employing quantitative and qualitative methods a questionnaire survey and interview. Some worrying phenomena has become noticeable within the pool of twenty four surveyed families, especially in terms of: shortcomings in the cultural and technological competence of parents, insufficient level of parental control, limited communication between parents and children or the lack of support from the school. This article is an attempt to deepen the analysis of impact that video games have on the family environment. The mentioned issue is particularly important in the perspective of growing prevalence of this medium and its specificity significantly different from older media.

new media video games modern family media socialization generation gap

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Indeks schematów rówieśników szkolnych uczniów z lekką niepełnosprawnością intelektualną (IE-PP-R) eksperymentalna wersja kwestionariusza

Author: Paweł Kurtek
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 217-229
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2016.01.12
PDF: kie/111/kie11112.pdf

The goal of the paper is presentation the index­measure concerning the classmates­schemes of adolescents’ with mild intellectual disabilities (mid). Psychosocial paradigm in rehabilitation inclines to get acquainted with subjective perspective which encourages to compiling instruments matched to cognitive abilities and social experience of the population. The theoretical approach of the tool is: the Theory of Social Schemes by B. Wojciszke (1986). The essence of these schemes is to see others as acting intentionally. As a key of partnerships (with classmates) there were distinguished two dimensions: help bullying and inclusion isolation which are very common presented in objective research perspective on mid. Due to the limited cognitive abilities of this population the research tool are based on Likert­type scale reduced to 4 options of choice. Moreover the items are formulated in easy­language based on real episodes. The psychometric procedure included such steps as: preparing a set of items focusing on these experiences, estimation of the content adequacy (by 6 Competent Judges). Then a group of 103 students (55 female and 48 male) with Special

social experience social scheme factor analysis

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Zasoby w pracy a zadowolenie z pracy nauczycieli Pośrednicząca rola zaangażowania

Author: Łukasz Baka
Year of publication: 2015
Source: Show
Pages: 230-244
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2016.01.13
PDF: kie/111/kie11113.pdf

In according with Job Demands-Resources model high job resources create appropriate job attitudes directly and indirectly through increase of work engagement. The direct and indirect effects of job resources were tested in relation to organizational commitment and citizenship behavior mainly. The study was aimed at investigation the links between job resources and job related subjective well­being, measured by job satisfaction and positive affect at work, and also mediating role of the work engagement relating to the above mentioned link. Participants were 316 teachers. As predicted by the Job Demands­Resources model, the research results show direct and indirect (via work engagement) effects of job resources on job­related well­being. High job resources (supervisor support, coworkers support and psychological climate at work) correlated with high job satisfaction and high positive affect at work. Work engagement mediated this links. The results indicate the need to develop Job Demands­Resources model.

work engagement ob resources job­related well­being

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Merril D. Smith (red.) , Cultural Encyclopedia of the Breast , Rowman & LiX lefield, Lanham Maryland 2014, ss. 288

Author: Emilia Mazurek
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 247-256
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2016.01.14
PDF: kie/111/kie11114.pdf

REFERENCES:

  • Jenner, E. (2014). Amazons. W: M.D. Smith (red.), Cultural Encyclopedia of the Breast (s. 13–14). Lanham Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield.
  • Łysak, A. (2014). Barbie Dolls. W: M.D. Smith (red.), Cultural Encyclopedia of the Breast (s. 25–27). Lanham Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield.
  • Smith, M.D. (red). (2014a). Cultural Encyclopedia of the Breast, Lanham Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield.
  • Smith, M.D. (2014b). Introduction. W: M.D.
  • Smith (red.), Cultural Encyclopedia of the Breast (s. 1–4). Lanham Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield. Smith, M.D. (2014c). Preface. W: M.D. Smith (red.), Cultural Encyclopedia of the Breast (s. ix–xi). Lanham Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield.
  • Smits Kenney, S. (2014). Breastfeeding. W: M.D. Smith (red.), Cultural Encyclopedia of the Breast (s. 57–61). Lanham Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield.
  • Sulik, G., Zierkiewicz, E. (2014a). Breast Cancer Support Groups. W: M.D. Smith (red.), Cultural Encyclopedia of the Breast (s. 50–52). Lanham Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield.
  • Sulik, G., Zierkiewicz, E. (2014b). Pink Ribbon Campaigns. W: M.D. Smith (red.), Cultural Encyclopedia of the Breast (s. 187–190). Lanham Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield.
  • Team, V. (2014). Breast Milk, Donation/Banking/Selling. W: M.D. Smith (red.), Cultural Encyclopedia of the Breast (s. 66–67). Lanham Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield.
  • Yalom, M. (2012). Historia kobiecych piersi. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Zielone Drzewo, Instytut Psychologii Zdrowia PTP.
  • Zierkiewicz, E., Wechmann, K. (2013). Amazonki – moje życie. Historia ruchu kobiet po leczeniu raka piersi z biografią liderki w tle. Inowrocław: Fundacja Ekspert – Kujawy.

„W kręgu zagadnień wyborczych”

Author: Tomasz Kowalczyk
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 257-262
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2016.01.15
PDF: kie/111/kie11115.pdf

Retrospektywne spojrzenie na przemoc rówieśniczą w szkole

Author: Aleksandra Tłuściak-Deliowska
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 11-32
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2016.03.01
PDF: kie/113/kie11301.pdf

Research on bullying in schools (1) are taken mainly in the quantitative methodology and (2) are conducted mainly on the regular basis in order to diagnose the phenomenon, evaluating its size and severity, as well as its determinants. The main aim of article is to present results of retrospective study on the experience of peer violence (e.g. the bully, bullied and bystander) at school (primary, middle and high school), with a particular focus on written statements of respondents. The data source was autobiographical memory of young adults. The study was conducted in the current academic year 2014/2015 among pedagogy students of the specialties of teacher education. As a result, the retrospective qualitative data about school experience of young adults were collected. Accept descriptions revealed a variety of personal experiences of respondents associated with peer violence at school, mainly from the perspective of its bystanders and victims. Data also provide a unique account of how adults view and perceived their school experiences.

bully bullied aggression at school bullying retrospective study violence aggression

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Szacunek dla autonomii kobiety ciężarnej a wolność sumienia lekarza. Etyczne konsekwencje odmowy wykonania świadczeń zdrowotnych przez pracowników służby zdrowia

Author: Justyna Czekajewska
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 33-46
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2016.03.02
PDF: kie/113/kie11302.pdf

The reason of moral conflict between a pregnant woman and a doctor is incorrect understanding principles of ethics and medical provisions. The erroneous course of reasoning often is leading to the contradiction heading fundamental assumption of medical ethics. According to the right to autonomy the acceptance of individual beliefs of the patient is the same important as the concern for her health, therefore one should treat the expectant mother with the respect respecting the sovereignty for her. In spite of the possibility of expressing the own opinion, the liberty of the subject cannot disturb the conscience of the doctor. Every man irrespective of the performed profession has the right to own beliefs, so the doctor can refuse to carry determined medical benefits out because of reported ethical doubts. In the article I’m going to establish the terms and what type of the benefits to explain are medical compulsory for a health service employee. To the purpose of the presentation of ethical problems of the medical conscience clause I will refer to example of abortion.

abortion medical conscience clause pregnant woman medical ethics autonomy laws of the doctor patient’s right

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Życie z szablonu CV. Doświadczenie pokoleniowe w narracjach młodych dorosłych

Author: Dorota Kuncewicz
Author: Wojciech Kruszewski
Author: Agnieszka Zasim
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 64-85
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2016.03.04
PDF: kie/113/kie11304.pdf

What narrative patterns do young adults apply when they relate stories about their lives? How do they perceive their lives? Finding the answers to these questions was the aim of the research described in this article. The study involved fourteen people aged 26–35, who talked about their lives in the form of a monologue. They were asked to speak on the subject: „Tell me about the last few years of your life”. The results of the thematised information analysis suggest that their narrations resemble autopresentations included in a CV or an application letter. The results of the implied information analysis point to the illusory character of what is said explicitly. The reconstructed hidden stories do not confirm the presented stories about successful life.

young adults narrations narrative patterns crisis of subjectivity

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Rzecz o bestiach, zgromadzeniach i publicznej partycypacji. Czyli o społecznym wymiarze orzecznictwa Trybunału Konstytucyjnego w analizie na wybranych przykładach

Author: Radosław Potorski
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 86-104
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2016.03.05
PDF: kie/113/kie11305.pdf

Judicial control of the conformity of law to the constitution nowadays serves as one of the basic guarantees of the observance of the constitution. In majority of continental European states it is performed by a particular body a constitutional court. So the same is true in Poland, however it seems still to be one of the least understood aspects of the functioning of our political system. And especially with regard to the opportunities offered by that for non­public entities to protect their rights and to influence the public decision making process. The awareness in this respect seems to be on a very low level. That is why the aim of the author is to verify a research assumption that the Constitutional Court jurisdiction has a serious social dimension, noticeable for Polish non­public actors.

constitutional court Constitution public participation

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Biznesowe aspekty funkcjonowania chińskich klinik poporodowych – analiza socjologiczno-ekonomiczna

Author: Joanna Afek
Author: Dorota Krupa
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 107-119
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2016.03.06
PDF: kie/113/kie11306.pdf

The tradition of ‘sitting the month’ derived from China is still a practiced custom to have a postpartum month after childbirth. Traditional rules applicable in a postpartum period were to help women rejuvenate their bodies after childbirth, to restore the balance of the body and ensure its future health. Today’s intensive economic development of China along with the increase in Chinese people’s savings contributes to creating a special and sophisticated offer for affluent social groups. An example of such an offer are postnatal clinics designed for wealthy Chinese women who want to have their postnatal period in accordance with traditional practices. The objective of this article is to show the business aspects of Chinese contemporary postnatal clinics and attempt to answer the question on how modern postnatal clinics combine tradition with modernity to make life easier for mothers, and to what extent they are another idea for doing business. The article addresses the major factors of the demographic and economic environment, which may have an impact on the prosperity of society and on the development of the market of postnatal clinics in the region. It also presents the essence of traditional postpartum practices in China. Offers of services to mothers and their children from fortysix clinics from Taipei in Taiwan were also analysed. It turns out that postnatal clinics are a phenomenon that could occur only within the Asian community. It is a product, which is very well inscribed in the Asian mentality and cannot be transferred to any another, such as, for instance, to the European mentality. Its future is limited to the Asian markets, or, possibly, to countries which have a Chinese diaspora on their territory. Over time, along with the spread of this traditional practice with a modern twist, the number of postnatal clinics can grow, which can translate into lower prices, a worse quality and a narrower range of services offered.

savings postpartum postnatal centers economic development China Taiwan

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Spektakl emocji, czyli kandydaci na ekranie. Kampania wyborcza i debaty prezydenckie 2015

Author: Agnieszka Kamińska
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 120-134
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2016.03.07
PDF: kie/113/kie11307.pdf

The field explored in this article refers to politics being used by media. The attention is driven especially to its final outcome, i.e. the presidential debates and the interpretation thereof in the broad context of the latest election campaign. The elections held in May 2015 were regarded as the most interesting over the past twenty years. The term ‘spectacle of emotions’ was very frequent in media commentaries. The subject of this article is based on the analysis of a few factors which composed such spectacle and the process of building up the tension towards the presidential debates. It is interesting to see them from the perspective of discussions held by journalists, currentaffairs commentators and experts in political marketing on the one hand, and the conclusions made by Polish and foreign media experts as well as J. Huizinga on the other hand. The results of the intertextual analysis will confirm, that even if politics itself is not entertaining, the television in 2015 enforces the entertaining style of politics.

elections spectacle elections campaigne politics presidential debate

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O wartościach i ich zmianie - raport z badań porównawczych nad systemami wartości studentów

Author: Mirosława Czerniawska
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 135-153
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2016.03.08
PDF: kie/113/kie11308.pdf

The present publication deals with the description of selected aspect of young people’s mentality, i.e. their systems of values. The research was conducted three times: in 2003 (325 respondents), in 2008 (379 respondents), and in 2013 (368 respondents), and it embraced students of the Bialystok universities. An attempt was made to establish if in the period of the ten years between the three surveys, and thus with the advancement of the transformational processes in Poland, one could observe changes in the mentality in the desired direction from the point of view of political transformations from ‘collectivism’ to ‘individualism’. The way of understanding values was adopted from M. Rokeach’s theory. To study the system of values, the Rokeach Value Survey was used. The obtained results lead to a conclusion that together with the advancement of transformation processes, young people’s systems of values undergo the transformation ‘towards individualism’ (except the comparison of the groups from 2008 and 2013). However, this ‘individualisation’ refers to a particular category of values. A growth of preferences for ‘pro-developmental’ values, which are essential for the system changes, was not observed. Instead, there is stronger acceptance of hedonistic values connected with the need for stimulation (an interesting, pleasant and diversified life), as well as the values connected with the social and material status. There was also an increase in the significance of collective values, which are a part of stabilizingaffiliate syndrome.

values of youths Rokeach’s value theory political transformations

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Tutoring akademicki-korzyści dla studenta, nauczyciela i uczelni wyższej

Author: Sabina Ratajczak
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 154-171
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2016.03.09
PDF: kie/113/kie11309.pdf

Tutoring as a teaching method is associated with the most prestigious European universities. More and more Polish universities decide to implement tutoring recognizing it as a way to create the image of an institution whose objective is to treat students subjectively and care about the quality of education. It is also a great method of improving talents and developing students’ and teachers’ academic potential. On one hand it is a method representing the elite personalized education; however, on the other hand, by means of providing the appropriate organizational conditions, it would also supplement the current educational process, which is typical for the mass education. The article presents the specific nature of the academic tutoring in terms of benefits that it would bring to the university, teachers and students. On the basis of the qualitative data collected during interviews with 15 participating in the program students from four Polish higher educational institutions, the program specificity and elements that, in students’ opinion, influence the program effectiveness were presented. The elements are as follows: relational nature of tutoring, tutor’s personality and classes in the form of individual meetings. Quoted comments indicate the effectiveness of this method, both in the context of students’ ability to be familiarized with the appropriate knowledge but also in the context of developing students’ communicative competence, ability to learn as well as increasing their motivation for learning. For teachers, tutoring is an opportunity to develop their didactic competence, to get rid of the academic routine, a chance to teach on the basis of constructing a good relationship with a student. For the university, tutoring is an opportunity to improve the quality of education and to implement methods of personalized education, which is associated with elite education and the best foreign universities.

tutoring personalized education teaching methods quality of education didactics elite education

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Dyskryminacja, akceptacja i niewidzialność nauczycielek nieheteronormatywnych na przykładzie wypowiedzi nauczycielek pracujących w kilku polskich szkołach

Author: Marcela Kościańczuk
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 172-191
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2016.03.10
PDF: kie/113/kie11310.pdf

The article is an analyze of non-heteronormative female teachers experience of their work place. It shows both their personal experience of exclusion (or inclusion) and understanding of that experience. Results are based on qualitative research (life-history interviews) with 8 teachers, analyze of internet phorum and also comparison with other European and American data. There are not a lot of research about such topic, not just in Poland but also in other countries, most of the European articles on this topic is based on qualitative research with few teachers. Results of such research should be presented and also should be an inspiration to other wider analyzes. Results of the research show that the majority of responders has never came out in their work place. They were afraid of discrimination and homophobia. The fear which was the reason of keeping in secret the information about sexual orientation was presented mainly among the teachers who were working in villages and small towns. Just on of my responders hasn’t ever heard any homophobic jokes or comments in her workplace. A lot of teachers indicated that ‘being in the closet’ is not comfortable for them because they have to hide a lot of information connected with their daily life and it separates them from the group of collegues. Most of them have founf one or two collegues and told them about their secret. Most of nonheteronormative teachers have good relations with pupils and these teachers connect their open attitude toward pupils problems with their personal experience of exclusion.

homophobia school system female non-heteronormative teachers coming out at school

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Studenci pedagogiki Akademii Pedagogiki Specjalnej w Warszawie i ich orientacje edukacyjne. Prezentacja wyników badań własnych

Author: Błażej Przybylski
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 192-209
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2016.03.11
PDF: kie/113/kie11311.pdf

The following article comprises the description of methodology and the presentation of the results of individual research. The aim of the realised project was recognising and characterising the educational orientations of pedagogy students. The author used the Polish adapted version of W.F. O’Neill’s questionnaire on ideological orientations to survey the educational orientations of students. The questionnaire estimates six detailed educational ideologies. This article presents the results of a survey concluded on a group of 506 students of the Maria Grzegorzewska University in Warsaw. Among students the choice of liberal educational ideology is predominant. The number of followers of radical right-wing educational ideologies is marginal.

educational orientations ideologies students liberalism conservatism

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Badanie ankietowe jako element ewaluacji jakości kształcenia na uczelniach wyższych

Author: Marek Jeziński
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 213-227
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2016.03.12
PDF: kie/113/kie11312.pdf

The paper concerns on advantages and disadvantages of survey researches used as tools in the process of evaluation of education quality in contemporary Poland. Education quality is usually surveyed by using questionnaires accessible in electronic internet form as a part of the USOS system. It is implied that survey, as a research method, is an effective means applicable to measure opinions, attitudes and expectations of the students. Moreover, the internet form of survey takes the most of advantages of the traditional forms of research, which makes it an efficient tool in the process of evaluation in the higher education. This way of research prevail at Polish universities.

quality of education survey research higher education USOS system

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Finansuj lub giń. Ludzie nauki, prestiżowe publikacje a system finansowania B+R w Polsce

Author: Agnieszka Jeran
Author: Joanna Piechowiak-Lamparska
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 228-241
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2016.03.13
PDF: kie/113/kie11313.pdf

The aim of this article is to present the possible relationship between the level of financing of R+D, the R+D personnel rate (particularly in the higher education sector) and the presence of Polish academic research in the world demonstrated by prestigious publications indexed in the Web of Science (WoS). The research findings concern the analysis of changes in time and show a clear, strong and positive correlation between the level of financing of research and development activity and the number of publications listed in the WoS. The received result indicates with a wellfitting regression model that there is a direct relationship between the expenditure on research and the presence of Polish scholars in the international science.

Polish academic research higher education science policy research evaluation Web of Science publishing policy

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Transformacja uniwersytetu. „Kultury audytu” i neoliberalne technologie zarządzania podmiotami społecznymi

Author: Marta Songin-Mokrzan
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 242-257
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2016.03.14
PDF: kie/113/kie11314.pdf

The article focuses on the changes in the field of higher education which have occurred during the period of systemic transformation in Poland; particularly on the influence of the regulations introduced in 2011. Following Cris Shore and Susan Wright the author argues that reforms are not only routine, bureaucratic practices but they have a profound impact on social life. In the light of this claim she suggests that the new law not only enforced structural adjustments in the academia but also triggered the process of reshaping the idea of university itself. This shift can be explained in terms of neoliberalisation (in the Foucauldian sense), as the process of transforming academia into the institution driven and dominated by the discourses of efficiency. In order to achieve that goal various tools developed for measuring academic and teaching performance, assessing research quality and institutional effectiveness were introduced. The author pays particular attention to practices of auditing, also defined as ‘rituals of verification’, which play a significant role in the process of producing accountable, selfdisciplined and calculative neoliberal subjects.

higher education neoliberalism politics neoliberal subject audit culture

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(Nie)zdolność do reformowania szkolnictwa wyższego i nauki w Polsce, czyli zaniedbania w zakresie wiedzy

Author: Agnieszka Dziedziczak-Foltyn
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 258-273
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2016.03.15
PDF: kie/113/kie11315.pdf

The paper focuses of the role of scientific knowledge in the processes of conducting reforms and public policy. The case of higher education and science reforms in Poland carried out over the period of 25 years of new political, social and economic conditions shows primary knowledge negligence of the reformers which undoubtedly affected the nature of the current higher education and science system, reformed several times already. It also furnishes some recommendations on how these processes may be improved. In the empirical dimension, the starting point was the concept of metaknowledge (i.e knowledge about knowledge), encompassing three aspects connected with generating and using knowledge in the context of higher education and science reforms, which are ringfenced basing on different methodologies:
(1) knowledge about reforming – theoretical literature query;
(2) knowledge in reforming – analysis of experts’ reports;
(3) knowledge of reformers – results of studies on the processes of learning and knowledge management in public administration.
The postulate of a broader use of scientific knowledge in reform processes is an attempt to indicate one of the key directions to follow when repairing the higher education and science system. For that reason, the role of social sciences has been highlighted, including, in particular, the role of sociologists in reform processes (as theoreticians and experts in the area of higher education and science). Furthermore, the need for sociologists to go back to the role of social expertsengineers has been signalled.

public policy higher education and science reforming sociology of knowledge

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Beata Bielska, „Magisterkę kupię”. Sprzedawanie i kupowanie prac dyplomowych jako element studenckiej kultury nieuczciwości, Wydawnictwo Naukowe Uniwersytetu Mikołaja Kopernika, Toruń 2015, ss. 248

Author: Magdalena Bergmann
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 277-283
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2016.03.16
PDF: kie/113/kie11316.pdf

REFERENCES:

Metodyka badań nad autorytetem – ujęcie interdyscyplinarne

Author: Paulina Markiewicz
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 292-305
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2016.03.18
PDF: kie/113/kie11318.pdf

REFERENCES:

  • Babbie, E. (2005). Badania społeczne w praktyce. Warszawa: PWN.
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  • Karwatowska, M. (2012). Autorytety w opiniach młodzieży. Lublin: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Marii CurieSkłodowskiej.
  • Mayntz, R., Holm, K., Hubner, P. (1985). Wprowadzenie do metod socjologii empirycznej. Warszawa: PWN.
  • Mikołejko, A. (1991). Poza autorytetem? Społeczeństwo polskie w sytuacji anomii. Warszawa: KeyTex.
  • Nowak, S. (2007). Metodologia badań społecznych. Warszawa: PWN.
  • Rewera, M. (2008). Autorytety w świadomości młodzieży licealnej: Studium porównawcze na podstawie badań uczniów I Liceum Ogólnokształcącego Collegium Gostomanium w Sandomierzu i I Liceum Ogólnokształcącego im. Stefana Żeromskiego w Chobrzanach. Stalowa Wola: Katolicki Uniwersytet Lubelski Jana Pawła II.
  • Sowińska, H. (2006). Autorytety i wzorce współczesnej młodzieży. Zeszyty Naukowe Wyższej Szkoły Pedagogiki i Administracji w Poznaniu, 2, s. 21 – 27.
  • ŚwidaZiemba, H. (2005). Młodzi w nowym świecie. Kraków: Wydawnictwo Literackie.
  • Wagner, I. (2005). Stałość czy zmienność autorytetów: pedagogicznospołeczne studium funkcjonowania autorytetu w zmieniającym się społeczeństwie. Kraków: Oficyna Wydawnicza IMPULS.
  • Witkowski, L. (2011). Historie autorytetu wobec kultury i edukacji. Kraków: Oficyna Wydawnicza IMPULS.
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  • Wysocka, E. (2009). Młodzież a autorytety: Analiza teoretyczna i empiryczne egzemplifikacje. Funkcjonowanie autorytetów w życiu codziennym młodzieży szkół średnich a religijność. W: J. Sieradzan (red.), Mit autorytetu, autorytet mitu (s. 285 – 322). Białystok: UwB.

Особенности движения интеллектуального капитала в рыночных условиях

Author: Айнура А. Кочербаева (Ainura A. Kocherbaeva)
Institution: Kyrgyz-Russian Slavic University
Author: Ныргыля К. Исакова (Nyrgylya K. Isakova)
Institution: Kyrgyz-Russian Slavic University
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 15-21
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/so2016201
PDF: so/10/so1001.pdf

Features of the movement of the intellectual capital in market conditions

The article examines the nature, types and features of the motion of intellectual capital.

labor kapitał intelektualny intellectual capital rynek pracy praca labor market

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