Wywiady online w badaniach jakościowych okresu pandemii: inkluzywny potencjał, zagrożenie wykluczeniem i jakość gromadzonych danych

Author: Piotr Binder
Institution: Polska Akademia Nauk
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8081-5274
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 38-62
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2022.03.03
PDF: kie/137/kie13703.pdf

Online interviews in qualitative research of the pandemic period: inclusive potential, risk of exclusion, and quality of collected data

The paper is devoted to online interviews that gained significant popularity during the pandemic. The text has two main goals. The first was to reflect on the possible mechanisms of exclusion and inclusion of various categories of research participants. The second objective was to analyze the impact of the communication channels used with the respondents on the quality of the collected qualitative data. The study exhibits that online research is gradually becoming more inclusive, and the argument of digital exclusion is becoming increasingly outdated. The respondents’ education may still exclude, especially among lower than secondary education respondents. At the same time, the formula of online interviews offers a significant proinclusive potential, which was reflected in the participation in the study of a number of informants who could be permanently unavailable under traditional research. Research also shows that online interviews are generally effective. However, the application of diversified communication channels results in systematic and measurable differences in the collected data. Considering various aspects, Zoom offered data of better quality than Skype. On the other hand, mobile applications (and phone calls) do not constitute a natural alternative, and it is difficult to recommend them.

Artykuł poświęcony jest technice wywiadów online, które zyskały znaczącą popularność w okresie pandemii. W tekście postawiono dwa zasadnicze cele. Pierwszym był namysł nad możliwością występowania mechanizmów wykluczania oraz inkluzji różnych kategorii uczestników badań. Drugim celem była analiza wpływu stosowanych kanałów komunikacji z badanymi na jakość gromadzonych danych jakościowych. Zrealizowane badania wskazują, iż badania realizowane online stopniowo stają się coraz bardziej inkluzywne, a argument wykluczenia cyfrowego podlega postępującej dezaktualizacji. Wyraźną rolę wykluczającą może nadal odgrywać wykształcenie badanych, zwłaszcza wśród badanych z wykształceniem niższym od średniego. Jednocześnie formuła wywiadów online oferuje znaczny potencjał proinkluzywny, czego wyrazem był udział w badaniu szeregu uczestników, którzy w ramach tradycyjnych badań mogliby pozostawać trwale niedostępni. Badania wskazują też, że choć wywiady online są rozwiązaniem efektywnym, to rezultatem zastosowania zróżnicowanych kanałów komunikacji są systematyczne i mierzalne różnice zgromadzonych danych. Biorąc pod uwagę długość zapisu, liczbę nagrań przerwanych oraz jakość połączeń, wywiady realizowane przez Zoom oferowały dane wyraźnie lepszej jakości niż Skype. Z kolei aplikacje mobilne (podobnie jak rozmowy telefoniczne), pomimo tego, że oferują zbliżone funkcje, nie stanowiły dla nich realnej alternatywy i trudno je rekomendować.

REFERENCES:

  • Andrejuk, K. (2020). Online qualitative research in immigrant communities: opportunities and challenges during the pandemic. Ask: Research and Methods, 29(1), 55–73. DOI: 10.18061/ask.v29i1.0004.
  • Archibald, M.M., Ambagtsheer, R.C., Casey, M.G., Lawless, M. (2019). Using Zoom Videoconferencing for Qualitative Data Collection: Perceptions and Experiences of Researchers and Participants. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 18, 1–8. DOI: 10.1177/1609406919874596.
  • Barry, C. A. (1998). Choosing Qualitative Data Analysis Software: Atlas/ti and Nudist Compared. Sociological Research Online, 3(3), 16–28. DOI: 10.5153/sro.178.
  • Batorski, D., Olcoń-Kubicka, M. (2006). Prowadzenie badań przez Internet – podstawowe zagadnienia metodologiczne. Studia Socjologiczne, 3(182), 99–132.
  • Beaton, B., Perley, D., George, C., O’Donnell, S. (2017). Engaging Remote Marginalized Communities using Appropriate Online Research Methods. W: N.G. Fielding, R.M. Lee, G. Blank (red.), The SAGE Handbook of Online Research Methods (s. 563–577). SAGE Publications Ltd. DOI: 10.4135/9781473957992.n32.
  • Carter, S.M., Shih, P., Williams, J., Degeling, C., Mooney-Somers, J. (2021). Conducting Qualitative Research Online: Challenges and Solutions. The Patient – Patient-Centered Outcomes Research, 14(6), 711–718. DOI: 10.1007/s40271-021-00528-w.
  • (2020). Korzystanie z Internetu. Komunikat z badań nr 85. Pobrane z: http://www.cbos.pl/SPISKOM.POL/2012/K_081_12.PDF
  • Chen, P., Hinton, S.M. (1999). Realtime Interviewing Using the World Wide Web. Sociological Research Online, 4(3), 63–81. DOI: 10.5153/sro.308.
  • Davidson, J., Paulus, T., Jackson, K. (2016). Speculating on the Future of Digital Tools for Qualitative Research. Qualitative Inquiry, 22(7), 606–610. DOI: 10.1177/1077800415622505.
  • Deakin, H., Wakefield, K. (2014). Skype interviewing: reflections of two PhD researchers. Qualitative Research, 14(5), 603–616. DOI: 10.1177/1468794113488126.
  • Duca, D., Metzler, K. (2019). The Ecosystem of Technologies for Social Science Research (White paper). W: A SAGE White Paper (A SAGE White Paper). DOI: 10.4135/ wp191101.
  • Fielding, N.G., Lee, R.M., Blank, G. (2017). Online Research Methods in the Social Sciences: An Editorial Introduction. W: The SAGE Handbook of Online Research Methods. SAGE Publications Ltd. DOI: 10.4135/9781473957992.
  • Fischer, M., Lyon, S., Zeitlyn, D. (2017). Online Environments and the Future of Social Science Research. W: N.G. Fielding, R.M. Lee, G. Blank (red.), The SAGE Handbook of Online Research Methods (s. 611–627). SAGE Publications Ltd. DOI: 10.4135/9781473957992.n35.
  • Foley, G. (2021). Video-based online interviews for palliative care research: A new normal in COVID-19? Palliative Medicine, 35(3), 625–626. DOI: 10.1177/0269216321989571.
  • Gibbs, G. (2014). Using Software in Qualitative Analysis. W: U. Flick (red.), The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Data Analysis (s. 277–294). SAGE Publications Ltd.
  • Gouseti, A. (2017). Exploring doctoral students’ use of digital technologies: what do they use them for and why? Educational Review, 69(5), 638–654. DOI: 10.1080/00131911.2017.1291492.
  • Gov.pl. (2020). Wprowadzamy stan epidemii w Polsce. 23.03.2020. Pobrane z: https://www.gov.pl/web/koronawirus/wprowadzamy-stan-epidemii-w-polsce.
  • Gray, L.M., Wong-Wylie, G., Rempel, G.R., Cook, K. (2020). Expanding qualitative research interviewing strategies: Zoom video communications. Qualitative Report, 25(5), 1292–1301. DOI: 10.46743/2160-3715/2020.4212.
  • (2021). Jak korzystamy z Internetu? 2020. Pobrane z: https://stat.gov.pl/obszary-tematyczne/nauka-i-technika-spoleczenstwo-informacyjne/spoleczenstwo-informacyjne/jak-korzystamy-z-internetu-2020,5,11.html.
  • Hanna, P. (2012). Using internet technologies (such as Skype) as a research medium: a research note. Qualitative Research, 12(2), 239–242. DOI: 10.1177/1468794111426607.
  • Hine, C. (2000). Virtual Ethnography. W: Virtual Ethnography. SAGE Publications Ltd. DOI: 10.4135/9780857020277.
  • Hine, C. (2015). Ethnography for the Internet: Embedded, Embodied and Everyday. Bloomsbury Academic.
  • Janghorban, R., Roudsari, R.L., Taghipour, A. (2014). Skype interviewing: The new generation of online synchronous interview in qualitative research [Article]. International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-Being, 9(1), 24152. DOI: 10.3402/ qhw.v9.24152.
  • Kasymova, S., Place, J.M.S., Billings, D.L., Aldape, J.D. (2021). Impacts of the COVID‐19 pandemic on the productivity of academics who mother. Gender, Work & Organization, 28(S2), 419–433. DOI: 10.1111/gwao.12699.
  • Knie, K., Schwarz, L., Frehle, C., Schulte, H. (2020). To zoom or not to zoom – the training of communicative competencies in times of Covid 19 at Witten/Herdecke University illustrated by the example of „sharing information”. GMS Journal for Medical Education, 37(7). DOI: 10.3025/zma001269.
  • Kozinets, R.V., Dolbec, P.-Y., Earley, A. (2014). Netnographic Analysis: Understanding Culture through Social Media Data. W: U. Flick (red.), The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Data Analysis (s. 262–176). SAGE Publications Ltd.
  • Krouwel, M., Jolly, K., Greenfield, S. (2019). Comparing Skype (video calling) and in- -person qualitative interview modes in a study of people with irritable bowel syndrome – an exploratory comparative analysis. BMC Medical Research Methodology, 19(1), 219. DOI: 10.1186/s12874-019-0867-9.
  • Lo Iacono, V., Symonds, P., Brown, D.H.K. (2016). Skype as a Tool for Qualitative Research Interviews. Sociological Research Online, 21(2), 103–117. DOI: 10.5153/sro.3952.
  • Mann, C., Stewart, F. (2000). Internet Communication and Qualitative Research. SAGE Publications Ltd. DOI: 10.4135/9781849209281.
  • Markham, A.N. (1998). Life Online: Researching Real Experience in Virtual Space. AltaMira Press.
  • Mirick, R., Wladkowski, S. (2019). Skype in Qualitative Interviews: Participant and Researcher Perspectives. The Qualitative Report, 24(12), 3061–3072. DOI: 10.46743/2160- 3715/2019.3632.
  • Moore, T., McKee, K., McCoughlin, P. (2015). Online focus groups and qualitative research in the social sciences: their merits and limitations in a study of housing and youth. People, Place and Policy, 9(1), 17–28. DOI: 10.3351/ppp.0009.0001.0002.
  • Moskvitch, K. (2013). Skype: How the online chat revolution changed lives. BBC News. https://www.bbc.com/news/technology-23862352
  • Namey, E., Guest, G., O’Regan, A., Godwin, C.L., Taylor, J., Martinez, A. (2020). How Does Mode of Qualitative Data Collection Affect Data and Cost? Findings from a Quasi-experimental Study. Field Methods, 32(1), 58–74. DOI: 10.1177/1525822X19886839.
  • Nind, M., Coverdale, A., Meckin, R. (2021). National Centre for Research Methods Changing Social Research Practices in the Context of Covid-19: Rapid Evidence Review. Economic and Social Research Council, 1–36.
  • O’Connor, H., Madge, C. (2001). Cyber-Mothers: Online Synchronous Interviewing using Conferencing Software. Sociological Research Online, 5(4), 102–117. DOI: 10.5153/ sro.543.
  • O’Connor, H., Madge, C. (2017). Online Interviewing. W: N.G. Fielding, R.M. Lee, G. Blank (red.), The SAGE Handbook of Online Research Methods (s. 416–434). SAGE Publications Ltd.
  • Paulus, T.M., Lester, J. N. (2021). Doing Qualitative Research in a Digital World. SAGE Publications Inc.
  • (2021). „Internet? Nie korzystam.” Kim są osoby wykluczone cyfrowo? Pobrane z: https://polpan.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/12/10-Internet.pdf.
  • Quan-Haase, A., Sloan, L. (2017). Introduction to the Handbook of Social Media Research Methods: Goals, Challenges and Innovations. W: L. Sloan A. Quan-Haase (red.), The SAGE Handbook of Social Media Research Methods (s. 1–9). DOI: 10.4135/9781473983847.n1.
  • Richards, T. (2002). An intellectual history of NUD*IST and NVivo. International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 5(3), 199–214. DOI: 10.1080/13645570210146267.
  • Richards, T., Richards, L. (1994). Using Computers in Qualitative Research. W: N.K. Denzin, Y.S. Lincoln (red.), Handbook of qualitative research (s. 445–462). SAGE. DOI: 10.1177/089443939401200221.
  • Salmons, J. (2010). Online Interviews in Real Time. SAGE Publications Inc.
  • Seitz, S. (2016). Pixilated partnerships, overcoming obstacles in qualitative interviews via Skype: a research note. Qualitative Research, 16(2), 229–235. DOI: 10.1177/1468794115577011.
  • Silver, C., Bulloch, S.L. (2017). CAQDAS at a Crossroads: Affordances of Technology in an Online Environment. W: N.G. Fielding, R.M. Lee, G. Blank (red.), The SAGE Handbook of Online Research Methods (s. 470–485). SAGE Publications Ltd. DOI: 10.4135/9781473957992.n27.
  • Ślęzak, I. (2021). Zło konieczne, substytut, szansa – wykorzystanie komunikatora Skype w badaniach jakościowych. Przegląd Socjologii Jakościowej, 17(4), 88–113. DOI: 10.18778/1733-8069.17.4.05.
  • Thunberg, S., Arnell, L. (2021). Pioneering the use of technologies in qualitative research – A research review of the use of digital interviews. International Journal of Social Research Methodology. DOI: 10.1080/13645579.2021.1935565.
  • Weller, S. (2015). The Potentials and Pitfalls of Using Skype for Qualitative (Longitudinal) Interviews. W: National Centre for Research Methods Working Paper (NCRM Working Paper).
  • Weller, S. (2017). Using internet video calls in qualitative (longitudinal) interviews: some implications for rapport. International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 20(6), 613–625. DOI: 10.1080/13645579.2016.1269505.

video interviews online interviews wideo-wywiady wywiady online digital exclusion inkluzja inclusion badania jakościowe wykluczenie cyfrowe qualitative research

Message to:

 

 

© 2017 Adam Marszałek Publishing House. All rights reserved.

Projekt i wykonanie Pollyart