On the Unspoken Effort. Language Status, Language Category, and Language-Driven Effort of Adolescents in a Multilingual Environment

Author: Anna Karolczak
Institution: University of Bialystok, Białystok
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9423-8025
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 125-142
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2022.04.08
PDF: kie/138/kie13808.pdf

The present exploratory study investigated adolescent experiences (N = 84) at a multilingual London college to provide evidence of the psychological factors underlying language-driven effort. It was assessed in a group of students with either English as First Language (EFL) or English as an Additional Language (EAL) status, speaking English to varying degrees, concerning their personal characteristics and environment. The impact of language status and category on such an effort was explored in volunteers of all year groups, using a new theory- and practice-based Language-driven Effort Questionnaire. Differences in language-driven effort among groups with diverse language statuses occurred. EAL students put in more effort, perceiving their environment as motivating and supportive, which was reciprocal, regardless of proficiency. Also, the language category was important for early EAL learners who struggled and were sometimes lonely. The results showed that the sources of language-driven efforts in multilingual settings are both personal and environmental. The need to analyse the individual situation and use flexible methods in the classroom were signalled for the benefit of all pupils who differ in language attributes.


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environment English EAL English EFL language-driven effort multilingual

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