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Author: Jan Samek
Year of publication: 2000
Source: Show
Pages: 7-16
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm200001
PDF: ksm/04/ksm200001.pdf

Abstract:

St Casimirus Church and the Monastery of Reformat Friars belong to build- ings erected in the second half of l7th century, after the Swedish invasion. It is typically Reformat-style edifice - modest and towerless.  The inten'or comprises a number of interesting elements: a complex of 18th cen- tury altars (1745-47), several dozens of l7th, 18th and l9th century tombstones and epitaphs made mostly of black marble.  A group of paintings which deal not only with Reformat themes is a significant element of the collection. A large part of them was painted by a well known Cracovian painter Michal Stachowicz among whose works there are a series of pictures depicting the stops of the Passion of Christ as well as decorations for a few volumes of Acta Transumpta. These decorations are an example of the collection belonging to the archive of the monastery.  As far as the gold-work items are concerned, the most valued possessions are an eelectic coral monstrance and wonderful 18th century chalices.

Author: Izabela Rejduch-Samkowa
Year of publication: 2000
Source: Show
Pages: 17-24
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm200002
PDF: ksm/04/ksm200002.pdf

Abstract:

The oldest bimah in Poland was an element of the Old Synagogue in the quarter of Cracow called Kazimierz and dated back to the second half of the 16th century. As the original was destroyed by the Germans, the bimah that is there there now is an exact reconstruetion. lt is based on a figure of twelve sides and has the form of an open-work grille forming a kind of high cage; a few steps lead to the platform from the south and the west.  ln Polish synagogues there were rectangular and polygonal bimahs, surrounded by balustrades. ln wooden synagogues of the 18'" century they often took the form of„shrines” covered with tapering or domed roofs.  Already in the first of the l7lh century, due to night worship that had been introduced earlier by Luri. a very original fomi of brick synagogues was developed. ln those so-called synagogues the four centrally placed columns or pillars formed a bimah, often with a lantem located at the top. This kind of construction had been later copied in beautiful and very unsual wooden synagogues which, regrettably, were bumed by the Germans during the Second World War.  The present paper deals with the bimah presented by Wit Stwosz (Veit Stoss) in one of the bas-reliefs of his altar in St Mary Cathedral.  lt seems that in this altar Stwosz managed to express everything he intended. He conveyed deep religious content by using very strong means of expression: sculptures, colours of enamel work, pathos. tranquillity, Visions, and realism, the last often accentuated. ln it he included everything his genius was capable of in order to produce a work „that was worthy of God and that exerted influence on hearts and senses of men”. Among many of late Gothic altars preserved in Europe, the altar in St Mary Catedral in Cracow is seen as the most perfect as no other altar can equal it in any respect.  Although so far no attempts have been made to investi gate the Jewish themes of St Mary altar, they are obviously there and have to be perceived and understood. In order to do that one needs to know both the Jewish and Catholic religion as well as religious and cultural customs. lt is not possible to analyse medieval art. Without being aequainted with ieonography and, in some of the images, doctrinal symbolism. This form of symbolism originates in early Medieval Ages and has its sources in the Holy Land. (Arabs and crusades).

Author: Krystyna Grzesiak
Year of publication: 2000
Source: Show
Pages: 25-42
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm200003
PDF: ksm/04/ksm200003.pdf

Abstract:

The house of prayer (heb. Bet Midrash - house ofstudy) was a place, where Jews used to gather in order to study of the Law and the rabbinic texts. There one could also lead religious service. Judaic Law allowed to consume meals in the houses of prayer, or - if the situation required - to sleep there. Houses of prayer were established by private people, religious, Charity or handicraftsmenś societ- ies. Cities with big agglomerations of Jewish people mn even hundreds of houses of prayer. For example: about 400 houses of prayer in Warsaw, about 100 in Łódź and Lublin, and about 34 in Kielce functioned in the period between the lSt and 2'ld World War.  There has been no detailed research to determine the number and localisation of all houses of prayer in Cracow yet.  The author 01” the article managed to set down names and addresses of 102 houses of prayer in Cracow on the basis of research. They were established over the span of years 1817 - 1938. Most ot'them were placed in buildings, where one or several rooms were adopted for religious purposes. Anywhere From ten to twenty big, sole houses of prayer were built in the beginning of twenticth century. They belonged to different religious societies.  After 1945 all houses of prayer in Cracow discontinued to fullil religious functions. Nowadays galleries, schools, offices, private tlats or cultural institu- tions reside there. Some of them were pulled down or reconstructed on account of bad technical conditions.

Author: Katarzyna Dormus
Year of publication: 2000
Source: Show
Pages: 43-60
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm200004
PDF: ksm/04/ksm200004.pdf

Abstract:

Problem of popularization of fine arts is inseparably connected with the conception of "aesthetical education”, that is with the process of forming desirable attitude towards arts. ln the nineteenth century ”aesthetical education” began to be treated as a one of the most necessary elements of general education of children and adults. In this time an informa] model of education was renounced in this sphere and it was granted institutional forms. One of its most important elements were drawing lessons and elements of artistical education in school programms. ln Kraków apart of schools, there were numerous artistical, cultural and educational institutions engaged in popularization of tine arts. Protection of historical buildings and monuments, development of history of arts as an academic branch and development of the press became as well important for the society. Nevertheless, the group of ”consumers” of arts was still limited to the intelligentsia and, to some extant, aristocracy.

Author: Elżbieta Piwowarczyk
Year of publication: 2000
Source: Show
Pages: 61-76
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm200005
PDF: ksm/04/ksm200005.pdf

Abstract:

Dobczyce is a small town in southern Poland in the valley ot'the Raba river within the Cracow Province. Foundation of the town and establishment ol~ the parish goes back to the l3th century. Since the times of Casimir the Great the Polish kings bestowed many privileges upon burghers of Dobczyce. In the l4th century crown lands were formed and let out by the kings. Two of the leaseholders of Dobczyce starosty erected two successive parish churches. Apparently, history of the town and the parish had the same background throughout centuries.  Collection of documents in the Parish Archives in Dobczyce is the testimony of coexistence of the town and the parish. Records from the lóth to the l9th century, many a time signed with seals, were kept there.  in this article, a collection of seals found in the Parish Archives of Dobczyce has been scrutinized. The seals impressed on the documents referred to the town, administrative district, domain, parish and the decanate of Dobczyce. Historical events in the town and the parish of Dobczyce provided the topic for the seals. lt was these events that conditioned placing them on the seals. ln case ol” Dobczyce the seals had three basic representations: 

1. The head of St. John the Baptist - which was placed on the city and parish seals. 

2. Architectonic representations of the Dobczyce castle - placed on the seals  of domain and decanate of Dobczyce. 

3. An Austrian Eagle - found on the seals of the administrative district.

Author: Janina Pach
Year of publication: 2000
Source: Show
Pages: 77-90
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm200006
PDF: ksm/04/ksm200006.pdf

Abstract:

The article deals with thcir idea of the direct foreign investments and their role in the technological development in Poland.  The direct foreign investments form the important part of the technology inflow to the country of their importer mainly in:  objectificd form as the inflow of goods of hinger teclmolocical level  connected with F DI,  unobjectified form comprising. first of all, the scientific and technical  concept protected by patens and unprotccted,  transfer competence by human factor.  Applying them helps to reduce the technological underdevelopmentin the country of the FDI importer on condition that the technologies imported to the country are modem, properly adapted to the economy of the country and used effectively.  ln this respect in Poland there are a lot of problems as the solutions that inflow to the country were of relative novelty (about 30% of the solutions and technological devices was even 10 years old), and morcover in many cases Polish scientific and research base was not sufficient to implement and develop them.  That is why, the state should apply the selective policy as regards the deve- lopment of branches and lines ofbusiness with foreign capital and the technolo- gies applied.

Author: Marian Szczepaniak
Year of publication: 2000
Source: Show
Pages: 91-104
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm200007
PDF: ksm/04/ksm200007.pdf

Abstract:

The Carpathian Euroregion was established on February 14. 1993. lt com- prises considerable parts of Poland, Slovakia, Ukraine, Hungary and Romania. The Euroregion covers an area of 141,500 sq. km and it has l4,800,000 inhabi- tants. These include over a dozen nationalities and several religions. This used to be the reason for bloody conflicts.  The process of the Euroregion's creation was significantly inspired and con-  tributed to by the Polish Ministry of Foreign Affairs, chief diplomats of Poland, Ukraine and Hungary, as well as the Institute for East-West Studies in New York. The [EWS has also played a considerable role in the initial period of the Eurore- gion”s existence. The Institute provided conceptual assistance and collected funds for the Euroregion's needs, e. g., the Peace Foundation of Sasakawa or the Rock- feller Brother Fund. Since 1995 the development and transnational projects of the Euroregion have been supported by the Fund for the Development of the C arpa- thian Euroregion, headquartered in Kosice, Slovakia, whose money has been grant- ed by the Charles Stewart Mott Foundation from the USA (the Motts Foundation has granted USD 3,900,000 for the support of the Carpathian Region in the The Euroregion's goals comprise the civilizational advaneement of its national parts and thier cooperation in various Fields, lighting against prejudice, promotion of good neighborly relations, as well as the development of trust among its citizens. Economic cooperation, particularly trade, has developed over the past tive years. Collaboration in the Fields of science, education, culture, ecology and tourism has also expanded. In 1998 the Euroregion's authorities commenced work on a new development strategy for the Carpathian Euroregion. This project has been assi- sted by the Maas-Rijn Euregio and supported financially by the government of the Flemish Community and Limburg Province, in the amount of ECU 179.300.

Author: Dariusz Koreleski
Year of publication: 2000
Source: Show
Pages: 105-118
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm200008
PDF: ksm/04/ksm200008.pdf

Abstract:

The author presents the delimitation of the problem causing areas (underdevcloped communes) in the Nowy Sącz voivodship, according to the criteria defined by the European Union. Both natural and cultural resources, as well as touristic base of these singlcd out areas have been considered. Special attention has been paid to the necessity to promote various kinds of non-agricultural activi- ty within the range ol'thc multifunctional development of rural areas with particu- lar regard to the agrotourism, protection of environment, landscape and other na- tural and cultural values.

Author: Krzysztof Łabędź
Year of publication: 2000
Source: Show
Pages: 119-134
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm200009
PDF: ksm/04/ksm200009.pdf

Abstract:

Persons especially active in work for the local community have been characte- rised in this text. They were indicated by inhabitans ofchoscn communes in Cracovian voivodeship and districts in Cracow. The material conserning these persons was gathered during the interviews with them (about 50). The background for showing these people, who can be defined as local social activists, was the data concerning all the inhabitans' activity and some of its circumstances. The data was obtained from lilled in questionnaires where lots were drawn. On the basis of the conducted study, we can state that among others, the local social activists are mainly men, who are between 40 and 60 years old, relatively well educated, repre- senting various political orientations. However, their presented characterization contains mainly motives and circumstances of taking an action for the local commu- nity, the characterization of the action success and failure, the way how allies and opponents are noticed, etc. The number of social activists are various in different parts of searched communes and districts. One of the conclusions is a statement that in areas where dwellers are more active, there are more local social activists.

Author: Andrzej Kotala
Author: Stanisław Moskal
Year of publication: 2000
Source: Show
Pages: 135-144
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm200010
PDF: ksm/04/ksm200010.pdf

Abstract:

The authors pay attention to the importance of rural building for the landsca- pe quality and express their opinion that country building, chaotic and devoid of style, poses a threat to the landscape amenities in the densely pOpulated Malopolska region.  On the basis of interviews conducted with 84] persons who run their farms in 4 Małopolska communities (gminas) the authors have detected a considerable polarization ofthc respondents” opinions concerning the effects of building on the landscape quality and introducing the necessary control over building activi- ties. The necessity has been noticed by an average of one third of the respondents and the percentage remains positively correlated to the level of their education.

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