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Author: Krystyna Grzesiak
Year of publication: 2002
Source: Show
Pages: 131-144
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm200210
PDF: ksm/06/ksm200210.pdf

The history of the Jewish district in Kazimierz goes back to the 14 th century, how- ever its ten'itorial eXpansion to which it owes the later name of the Jewish town. ap- peared at the end of 15 th century.  The king of Poland - Jan Olbracht - had the Jews moved out to Kazimierz in 1495. This was the result of conflicts existing among the Cracow burghers and the Jewish community caused by economic and religious mistrnderstandings.  At the beginning the Jewish town took up a smallarea in the vicinity of present Szeroka Street. The influx of Jews from Spain, Silesia and Germany in the 16"' centu- ry made the settlement necessary to expand. Its spatial development took place in three basic phases, in the years 1553-54. 1558 and 1608-09.  As the result the Jewish town occupied the area bounded by the present streets: Miodowa. Starowiślna. Dajwór. Wawrzyńca. Józefa and Plac Nowy.  In this part of Cracow the Jews built seven synagogues: Stara ( second half of the 15'„ century). Remu (1553), Wysoka (was probably built after 1556 and before 1563). Poppera ( 1620). Ajzyka (1638), Kupa (ca. 1643). Tempel (1860-1862) as well as houses of prayer and cemetery.  Until 1939 the synagogues fulfiled reli gious, social. political and cultural functions.  The beginning of World War II radically changed the situation of the Jews.  The substantial number of Jews inhabitans of Cracow was killed and on top of that all the synagogues with their rich l'urnishings were destroyed.  After 1945 the synagogues discontinued to fulfill their original functions.  Nowdays jewish museum (Stara Synagogue). cultural institutions (Synagogues: Ajzyka. Poppera) and the Workshop ol' Relics Renovation (Wysoka) reside there.  Synagogues Rcmu and Tempel are open and serve the need of the small Jews Community.

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