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Author: Lesław Galeński
Year of publication: 2005
Source: Show
Pages: 9-14
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm200501
PDF: ksm/09/ksm200501.pdf

Abstract:

The following paper refers to my article on Non-law elements of the social order in the state. Its objective is to justify the presented issue. 'I he author emphasizes that the mentioned elements belong to the domain of the theory of law which can be solved only within the framework of sociology of law. As a result. the author Claims that the mentioned elements gain the significance of a semi-social institutions.

Author: Janina Szczepaniak
Year of publication: 2005
Source: Show
Pages: 15-34
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm200502
PDF: ksm/09/ksm200502.pdf

Abstract:

The institutional trend includes veblenism, postveblenism, neoinstitutionalism and new institutional economics ~ all with reference to another theory are very critical to mainstream economics. That contribute new questions, important was change of assumption - especially of human rationality. It should be emphasized great importance for postveblenism theory (among the another theory - empirical researches). Postveblenism representatives played a part of an economic practice in the United States of America. Neoinstitutionalism support to increase nation role, did not have more importance (maybe quasi - institutionalists). 'lhe whole idea was concentrated more on macroeconomic. The new institutional economics refers to microeconomic and postveblenism. Main problems its: transaction costs, institution, transactions. It seems, that it recovers some influence in the science and importance for a practice.

Author: Stanisław Moskal
Year of publication: 2005
Source: Show
Pages: 35-44
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm200503
PDF: ksm/09/ksm200503.pdf

Abstract:

The article presents direction of changes concerning the lifestyle, the conscience, the attitudes and customs of countryside inhabitants and indicates its economic, social and historic dctcrminants. It describes also the factors that majntain some cultural particularity of countryside.

Author: Zdzisława Zacłona
Year of publication: 2005
Source: Show
Pages: 45-54
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm200504
PDF: ksm/09/ksm200504.pdf

Abstract:

A teacher in contemporary school should be the creative subject of his activities who shuns stereotypes and looks for new paths and methods in education. One should have sensitive and rellective nature in order to plan one's own development, find creative solutions and foresee the effects of pedagogical activities. A teacher should be, for one, a reflective practitioner since his professional development is closely connected with the pedagogical reflection.  School routine shows that many teachers know little about reflection and do not appreciate it before, during and after their pedagogical work. It is a disturbing phenomenon since reflection gives a teacher a chance to understand his/her actions, helps to control his/her development and enriches his/her knowledge on teaching and upbringing which helps to make valid and wise choices.  It is important to focus on reflective thinking in teachers” education and profes- sional development and to create conditions for everyday, purposeful and planned reflection in pedagogical practice.

Author: Jacek Romanek
Year of publication: 2005
Source: Show
Pages: 55-74
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm200505
PDF: ksm/09/ksm200505.pdf

Abstract:

The aim of this article is to present the basic tasks of the mass paramilitarian organizations within the Soviet political system.The mass organisations were very important in the totalitarian Soviet state. Ideas generated by the Party come to the masses by the mass organizations. They were involved in all propaganda campaigns initiated by the Party. These organizations were the trade unions, the cooperatives, the youth organizations such as the "Komsomol" or paramilitarian organization the "Osoawjachim”.  The "Osoawjachim" was designed in 1926 for youth between the ages fifeteen and eighteen. It served as a recruiment and training agency for the Red Army. The Osoaivjachim” had a particular task such as acquainting people with flying and parachuting or helping the navy.  According to the Soviet propaganda the "Osoawjachim" involved a large per- centage of the Soviet population in its work; it is estimated that 3 percent of the Soviet society belonged. The growth of the "Osoawjachim” was impresissive; it is estimated that from 1927 to l931the organization increased its membership three- fold - from 3 000 000 to 9 000 000. The percentage of women fluctuated - in 1935 it was 25 percent.

Author: Marcin Sadowski
Year of publication: 2005
Source: Show
Pages: 75-90
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm200506
PDF: ksm/09/ksm200506.pdf

Abstract:

There is signińcant disparity in economic strength between regions of Poland. Two of the economically largest voivodships - Mazowieckie and Slaskie - pro- duces over one third of total gross domestic product (GDP) of Poland. To com- pare, GDP of four voivodships with the smallest economics (Opolskie, Lubuskie, Podlaskie and Swietokrzyskie) represent less than 10% of total Polandis GDP. When analysing development of this indicator during the period of 1995 and 2003, it is evident that the difference between the largest and the smallest voivod- ships increased.  The most adequate and commonly used indicator comparing economic devel- opment of regions is per capita GDP. Comparing development of this ratio in recent year, one can notice that the differences between regions not only did not diminish, but they continued to increase. Looking back to 1995, the highest level of economic development was reported in Mazowieckie voivodship, with per capita GDP higher by a quarter in comparison to the Poland's average. Three years later, it increased to 146% of the national average, this trend being continued in following years. In a result, in 2003, the level of wealthness of the Mazowieckie exceeded the national average by 53.1%, indicating that the region developed at significantly higher rate than the country as a whole. The lowest level of per capita GDP ratio in 2003 was reported in Lubelskie - approximately 70% of Poland's GDP. It means that between 1995 and 2003 this indicator deteriorated significantly, from 77% of GDP, indicating markedly lower economic growth in this region than in the country as a whole.  level of economic development is highly influenced by labour productivity - in regional breakdown, differences in labour productivity are significant, and during the period of 1995-2003 they widened significantly. In 1995, the average produc- tivity of a person employed in the Mazowieckie region was higher by some 60% than that of a person working in the Lubelskie voivodship. During the next few years the difference increased to almost 80%. The major reasons for rising differ- ences in average labour productivity in a regional breakdown are differences in structure of regional economics. While the economy of Mazowieckie region enjoys significant share of high-productivity sectors of the economy, such as market services or industry, in the Lubelskie voivodship, the share of these sectors is sig- nificantly lower. Conversely, the share of sectors with the lowest productivity, i.e. agriculture and non-market services is on of the highest in Poland, significantly influencing the level of economic development of the region.  Economic development of Polish regions in the period of 1995-2003 shows that the differences in level of development are steadily raising, however, the pace of growth has been slightly lower after 1998. Nevertheless, the situation of the more weakly developed regions will continue to improve at a slower rate than that of the more highly developed regions. Even the inflow of funds from European Union, which are to limit differences in regional development, will not help significantly in the near term, while it will be supplied at a rate too slow to decrease differences.

Author: Arkadiusz Siedlecki
Author: Marcin Krysiak
Year of publication: 2005
Source: Show
Pages: 91-98
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm200507
PDF: ksm/09/ksm200507.pdf

Abstract:

The issues presented in this paper deal with the problems of the Market Risk Management. Authors of the study have made an attempt do determine the impact of hedging policy on the general standing of the company and have introduced derivatives which are commonly regarded as tools of protection against risk.  One of the main thesis of that study is that the company should be aware of opportunities and threats of applying risk management policy and only hedging due to the best practices, avoiding speculation, is the best way to success.

Author: Arkadiusz Siedlecki
Year of publication: 2005
Source: Show
Pages: 99-124
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm200508
PDF: ksm/09/ksm200508.pdf

Abstract:

Development process in every small and medium-Sized enterprise (SME) is associated with variable demand for capital in different periods of time. Therefore, one of the essential conditions for the owner of an enterprise, who wants to improve financial management, is knowledge of factors determining level and changes in time of demand for capital. When a new size of a company becomes stable the demand for capital and its development in time depend on economic process form, its rapidity, possible production capacity use as well as production and sale changes.  From among many models illustrating functioning of small and medium-Sized enterprises at different stages of their development the ones worked out by N. Churchill, V. Levis and I.. Greiner are worth considering. in the model of develop- ment presented by N. Churchill and V. Levis at respective stages of SME life-time evolution of quality features occurs. The more important role is played by such factors as: strategic planning, employees” know-how, proper delegation of duties, power and responsibility by the owner of company. According to I.. Greiner, taking into account age. size and industry branch development rate the enterprise devel- opment can be shown as subsequent alternative evolution and revolution proc- esses. As there is necessity to consider a great number of factors, the due financial care should be taken while planning future incomes and defining demand for capital.

Author: Dariusz Koreleski
Year of publication: 2009
Source: Show
Pages: 125-134
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm200509
PDF: ksm/09/ksm200509.pdf

Abstract:

The paper presents the issue of differentiation in the context of the level of entrepreneurship in the chosen rural areas of the Małopolska Province. The author makes an attempt to measure the levels ofentrepreneurship indicating their deter- minants and to find the impact of the big cities on the rural communcs in terms of entrepreneurship. After calculating the data, the rankings of the rural com- munes in three different land-districts surrounding three big cities in the Małopolska Province have been prepared. On that basis the ranking thresholds have been introduced, so as to denote the four levels of entrepreneurship.

Author: Antoni Kożuch
Year of publication: 2005
Source: Show
Pages: 135-152
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm200510
PDF: ksm/09/ksm200510.pdf

Abstract:

The aim of the paper is an attempt to describe directions and determinants of developing SME Sector under conditions of European Union (UE) integration. The integration process into EU caused new conditions of functioning the Polish national economy. One of the beneńts of EU integration in the light of the Polish SME sector development is a wide access to EU market. Potential opportunities of the Polish SME sector development created by the EU membership are described as follows: increasing amount of turnover, increasing of export activity, increasing places of employment, an inflow of foreign capital, technical infrastructure devel- opment, restructuring rural and peripheral areas, and also strengthening local self-government.  Provided evaluation of SME sector strategy shows current constrains of rural SME sector development, i.e. low level of investment, worse perspectives of employment then in urban areas, domination of defensive behaviours. Conse- quently limited activities oriented to product and market expansion, giving prefer- ences to no risks, and defence of gained market position. One of the main reasons of revealed constrains is low impact of local authorities on initiating and develop- ing rural entrepreneurship and inadequate strategic planning, and also limited budget means.

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