• facebook
Author: Aleksander Lipski
Year of publication: 2007
Source: Show
Pages: 7-24
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm200701
PDF: ksm/11/ksm200701.pdf


Art, developing for a long time according to the logic of emancipation towards a deepening intellectual anarchy and axiological chaos which destroys its identity, is, in my opinion, a closed subject. However, J. Baudrillard and D. Kuspit return to it, joining a long list of authors who announce the death of art; the death which manifests itself in art’s entropy, repetitiveness, recycling of the same thing again and again, image transparency, nothingness, nihilism or commercialisation. In this respect, both diagnoses confirm only observations made earlier. The issues which deserve more careful examination include: aestheticisation of economy, art as a laboratory of social anomie, the return to traditional painting. The aestheticisation of economy depicts the extension of art to its new, alternative forms of existence, towards such fields as marketing, image creation, consumption, the cult of the body (narcissism) and ‘disneylandisation’ of life. The aestheticisation of economy (also: of everyday life) appears to be conquering the area of art while pushing away to the margin the two other trends (continuation of the avant-garde experiments and reactivation of visual arts in their earlier form).

Author: Mirosław Kłusek
Year of publication: 2007
Source: Show
Pages: 25-31
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm200702
PDF: ksm/11/ksm200702.pdf


Diversified methods for gathering and working out statistical data connected with agriculture had existed on the Polish territory under annexations, till the moment of Poland’s independence regain. The Prussian rule had the best organized agricultural statistics. Statistical works on the German territory had been conducted by two offices: Prussian Royal Statistical Office and Statistical Office of the Third Reich. On the territory under Austrian rule, agricultural statistics had been conducted by the Ministry of Agriculture and by the Central Statistics Commision. While, on the Polish territory included into Russian rule, especially the Central Statistics Committee working by the Ministry of Interior. Besides, the Warsaw Statistical Committee had been working in Warsaw.

Author: Wincenty Kołodziej
Year of publication: 2007
Source: Show
Pages: 32-53
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm200703
PDF: ksm/11/ksm200703.pdf


The article titled „A few remarks regarding activity of Polish organizations in the United States” tells about social-political activity of Polish immigration in the US. Polish immigration to US, started at the beginning of the IX century and from the very beginning immigrants started to play a great role in the economic and political life. After the enfranchisement of the peasants in Prussian and Austrian annexations and in the sixties of the XIX century in the Russian annexation, Polish immigration started in search for a better life on the American continent.

First immigrants came to the US in 1834. They were the people fighting in the Polish November Uprising, that were afraid that they would be sent to Siberia and therefore they were looking for a new homeland. The first Society of Poles in United States was established in 1842 in New York from their initiative. The Catholic Church started to play an important role and influence their education and spiritual life. The life of the Poles was mostly focused around the life of the parish. According to statistics from 1870 there were 10 parishes and later there has been a dynamic increase in the number of them. In 1880 there were seventy parishes and in 1890 already one hundred seventy. After 1870 a number of new societies came into existence. The first one was The Society of Brotherhood Help of St. Stanislaw Kostka. It’s role was to integrate the polish people. Local Polish municipalities also tried to do the same. Attempts to integrate the Polish diaspora were also made by Polish municipalities which had been founded since 1886. However, these attempts were unsuccessful. Similar unsuccessful attempt was made in New York in 1870, when an Union of Poles in America was about to be founded. Only in 1873 a nationwide organization was founded in Chicago which was able to survive to the present time – Polish Roman Catholic Union of America (PRCUA).

Influence of the clergy in the Union was the reason for very firm catholic character of its program. The program distanced itself from non-believers and liberals. In addition, there were also accusations that it did not express enough concern about struggle for independence of Poland. The leader of the Union was the patriarch of Polish emigrants – a priest Leopold Moczygeba. The Union did not included to its ranks its antagonists. Foundation of this organization enabled to found another organization, which would integrated the remaining part of Polish emigration. Foundation of the new organization took place on 10 August 1880. A convention of supporters was called together on 21 September 1880 on which an organization called the Polish National Union (PNU) was founded. As a result, two streams of Polish emigration outlined becoming two axis of the Polish diaspora. In a program of the Polish National Union the main issue was a struggle for independence of Poland. The organization accepted as its members people with various political and life views. Lithuanians, Russians and Jewish people were also members of the Union. Existing differences of opinions and also rivalry in winning supporters among emigrants were often reasons for disputes and annoyances. Either the Polish Roman Catholic Union of America or the Polish National Union ran a similar insurance activities, collected funds for charity and educational purposes, and organized itself for stabilization of Polish diaspora in the United States. Characteristic elements of Polish society disintegration led to constant disputes between PRCUA and PNU and became a basis for foundation of new organization, which underwent further divisions. A very interesting organization among the Polish diaspora with broad range was the Union of Polish Women (UPW), founded in Chicago in 1899. This organization was created in the environment close to the PNU. It was founded on a basis of women’s struggle for emancipation. The program of the UPW was support of national traditions, charity work and establishing relations with organizations with similar characters acting in the USA.

Author: Danuta Okoń
Year of publication: 2007
Source: Show
Pages: 54-65
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm200704
PDF: ksm/11/ksm200704.pdf


The article discusses the achievements of leading representatives of Austrian school: C. Menger – the founder of Austrian school and his students: E. Böhm-Bawerk and F. Wieser, which are forming the fi rst generation of this school. The members of the second generation are L. Mises and J.A. Schumpeter, and the member of the third generation is F.A. Hayek. The submitted attitudes had an essential impact on the school’s development as well as on the others courses of the economic’s thought like: theory of value and price of Menger, theory of percent of Böhm-Bawerk, the development of the theory of value, theory of impute and alternative costs of Wieser. Schumpeter elaborated work, the best until today, that includes the history of the economic’s thought and the theory of economic’s development based on the innovations. Mises is known as the men who elaborated the praxeology, the outline of theory of trade cycle and who was the proponent of liberal thought.

The article closes the greatest economist of the XX century of Austian school – Hayek, which brought the contribution into economics in the scope of: theory of trade cycle, theory of capital, analysis of functional of the economics’ systems as well as the social and political philosophy and theory of law.

Author: Elżbieta Wolanin-Jarosz
Year of publication: 2007
Source: Show
Pages: 66-78
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm200705
PDF: ksm/11/ksm200705.pdf


The following articles presents the role of the consumer. In creating the competitive tage of companies on the market. The main attention was focused on discussing the possibilities and ways of shaping long term relationships with customers as the essential element of competition strategy. According to the authoress a modern consumer is not a passive object of marketing activities but a demanding market partner awaiting the optimal fulfillment of their wishes, constant dialogue and communication based on reliable information and mutual trust. The key elements deciding about the market advantage of the company should include individualized product offer and creating and delivering the values to the customers.

Author: Anna Gądek
Year of publication: 2007
Source: Show
Pages: 79-102
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm200706
PDF: ksm/11/ksm200706.pdf


Entrepreneurs, in order to assure development and retain their position on a highly competitive market, are forced to continuous searching for and implementing new solutions on the organisational, structural or technological levels. The adopted management method and human resources policy in a company, as well as using non-standard or flexible forms of employment, which can be nowadays considered as one of the key factors in decreasing the labour costs and adjusting the amounts of paid work to current needs, are not without influence on the financial results. It is clearly visible that full-time employees are the least profitable for employers due to high personal costs consisting in not only the paid remuneration, but also half of the insurance premiums from these amounts, premiums for earmarked funds, premiums for insurance from accidents and additional costs. New forms of employment in the literature on the subject are described as atypical, alternative, non-standard or flexible forms. The point of reference is always the code model, according to which the employees should perform their work subordinated, managed by the employer and for the employer, on the average for 40 hours in a 5-day working week, in a place and time indicated by the employer. An approach may be distinguished in the literature saying that every deviation from one of the model’s elements, e.g. time of work or place of performing it, will lead to atypical form of employment in its wide sense. The narrowed down meaning of new forms of employment is understood differently, and is connected withthe statement that some forms of employment have been practiced for some time and acknowledged as relatively frequent, and, therefore, should not be considered new, as they have established their position in practice and no longer bear the mark of a “novelty.” It is first of all connected withperforming work in other work time systems than the basic one or other than the full-time work model. Decisions on if and which of the non-standard forms of employment are to be implemented are made by the employer, who, in most cases, is an entrepreneur interested in reducing employment costs while assuring a high level of performance and quality of the work. In this respect, the employer may use the following possibilities: • to confide the work to be done at home – tele-work, home-based work,

  • labour leasing, i.e. employing part-time employees,
  • work-sharing,
  • job-sharing,
  • cooperation on the basis of civil-law contracts,
  • managerial contract,
  • cooperation withthe self-employed,
  • employing the unemployed on the basis of internship contracts,
  • outsourcing.

Additional possibilities that can translate to measurable financial benefits are connected withthe work time systems, i.e. flexible employment. Specifically, they involve:

  • shortened working week,
  • weekend work system,
  • intermittent work system.

Author: Monika Zioło
Year of publication: 2007
Source: Show
Pages: 103-112
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm200707
PDF: ksm/11/ksm200707.pdf


This paper presents role and position of Cooperative banks in Poland and European Union Countries. In presented countries works two type of structure. First double stage structure with local banks affiliated with one domestic bank, which function in Spain, Netherlands and Denmark. Another one is three stage structure with local banks, regional banks and domestic banks. Currently most association reduce regional banks which helps lowered cost. They played very important role in development of rural areas in many countries especially in Spain, Austria and Germany. Market share in total assets of banking sector was on the level above 30%.

Author: Tomasz Zacłona
Year of publication: 2007
Source: Show
Pages: 113-127
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm200708
PDF: ksm/11/ksm200708.pdf


The image of an organization, determining behavior of consumers, has become a pragmatic reason why so much attention is paid to its proper quality and clarity in broadly understood surroundings. The bigger role an organization’s image plays in the decisions made by present and future customers, the more willingly the organization cares about it. The role and meaning of the image cannot be limited to market mechanisms and should be understood through the prism of all interactions on the organization-surroundings axis. Understanding mechanisms of how the image operates seems to be possible through a thorough analysis of human behavior patterns and psychological processes taking place during decision making. The plentitude of research on the meaning of image in decisions and behavior shows how essential it is to plan and shape it systematically, which correlates with the changes in modern human’s and consumer’s outlook.

Author: Piotr Cymanow
Author: Klaudia Cymanow-Sosin
Year of publication: 2007
Source: Show
Pages: 128-146
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm200709
PDF: ksm/11/ksm200709.pdf


The subject of the article is advertising as a tempting medium, which affects consumers with the use of various types of tricks and strategies. The main theses of the paper focus on the examination of problems of psychological effect of medial communications on their receptacle. In this context traditional models of advertising effect, i.e. informative, decisive and one line become disputed. Basing on the latest achievements of research on human perception the Authors draw attention to the functionality of two modernized models: Memory-Affect-Cognition (MAC) by Tim Ambler and Low Involvement Processing Model (LAP) by Robert Heath. Th e theories which formed within the consumer psychology and advertising explain the effect of what goes on in human brain on human decisions and make us understand that human behaviours are partial and changeable since each individual has their own needs, aims and methods by which they achieve them, whereas the final decision is influenced by such elements as memory, attention, experiences or motivation. In result, as suggested by the authors of the article entitled: The effect of advertising in the light of discoveries of consumer psychology, contemporary advertising will more often use hidden cajoling techniques instead of rational persuasion.

Author: Magdalena Kowalska
Year of publication: 2007
Source: Show
Pages: 147-156
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm200710
PDF: ksm/11/ksm200710.pdf


A high level of traditionalism and tradition cultivation in multi – generations families in Debno Community, which set its rhythm is seen. Over 80% respondents indicated to very big and big role of tradition in their families. Only the fall of signifi cance of typically secular tradition is observed for example: Easter Monday or painting painted eggs. At present these tradition strictly connected with church rites are maintained on the same level as in the past. The fact of long – lists of additional traditions, which were mentioned by respondents reflects about high level of traditionalism in Debno Community. As much as 80% families, out of typical families which are kept on the whole on Christmas and Eastern traditions indicated to the existence of extra rites and customs like: “Burning Judas” in Easter Thursday, blessing garlands in the Octave of Corpus Christi or a home – made bread. Moreover most families don’t treat mainly feasts like an opportunity to relax or social meetings, but first of all as religious experience and wonderful alleged reason to family meetings. Summing up on can state that feasts and traditions connected with them play big role in multi – generation families life from Debno Community.

Message to:



© 2017 Adam Marszałek Publishing House. All rights reserved.

Projekt i wykonanie Pollyart