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Author: Piotr Długosz
Year of publication: 2009
Source: Show
Pages: 7-29
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm200901
PDF: ksm/13/ksm200901.pdf

Abstract:

Article presents results of the research on educational segregation. From conducted research came out that young people are divided into groups. One group, usually those with high social status, plan to attend the best high schools and continue studying on prestigious universities.Disadvantaged young people chose educational establishment that have low reputation and do not guarantee good start in adult life. Conducted research clearly shows that educational system is less and less egalitarian. Career and success on a labor market are more and more frequently determined by family status of the student.

Author: Wioletta Knapik
Year of publication: 2003
Source: Show
Pages: 30-47
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm200902
PDF: ksm/13/ksm200902.pdf

Abstract:

The article of Wioletta Knapik, makes the analysis of the problems concerning of the equation of educational chances of children and the rural-young people in the context of the Union program. The value of the project made the sum: 8.255.799,00 zloty. Participation- entitled subjects in the program were primary schools, grammar-school and overgrammar- school from rural communes, rural areas, the rural-municipality and municipalities. Final beneficiaries of the “Super School” were schoolboys and teachers of primary schools, grammar-school, overgrammar-school, particularly from rural areas. The territorial range project-is 5 administrative districts of Lesser Poland voivodship: Chrzanow, Olkusz, Oświęcim, Myślenice and Wieliczka. For purposes of the equation of educational chances indispensable is the creation of the wide partnership in the local environment which this partnership it should unite needs and expectations of inhabitants with operations of local municipal institutions, extragovernment-organizations, educational authorities, parishes, informal (eg. parental or of schoolboy) groups.

Author: Wincenty Kołodziej
Year of publication: 2009
Source: Show
Pages: 48-64
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm200903
PDF: ksm/13/ksm200903.pdf

Abstract:

Revolution in 1905–1907 was the first resolution of the capitalism era, in which participated both bourgeoisie and social classes exploited by it, i.e. workers and peasants. Bourgeoisie supported the revolution in the first phase to improve its political position through its fight against tsar regime, while workers and peasants wanted to improve their material conditions. Existing crisis of authorities in Russia, enormous exploitation of working class, closing of factories, lay offs of workers and intellectuals, increasing starvation and high mortality among working class and peasantry, lead this groups towards direct combat against the tsar. Bourgeoisie took fright at force of the revolution and stopped its support, taking the side of the czarism. At the beginning of the twentieth century, the main political and organisational role in the workers’ environment in Russia was taken by political parties. They conducted vivacious activities in the country, as well as in emigration circles. Political agitation among Russian emigrants in Geneva, Paris and London was conducted – apart from socialist and socialdemocrat parties – also by anarchists. When in 1903 western European anarchist theory began again to penetrate into Russia, it appeared that the Russian Social Democrats were not ideologically prepared for polemics with this doctrine. Social revolutionists proved to be even weaker and less immune to this anti-state movement, which resulted in breakdown of their ranks and the emergence of the so-called maximalist. The anarchists met, however, the most often with members of the Jewish Labour Bund, as initially most of anarchists were of Jewish origin. The Bund members were the least resistant to agitation of the anarchists and they began pour in their ranks. The process of transition of political parties in the ranks of the anarchists and the rapid development of this movement occurred in the second period of the 1905–1907 revolution. This was caused by several reasons, such as the raging counterrevolution, ideological crisis of parties involved in the labour movement, taking away gains of the revolution from working class, increasing crime, resulting from rising unemployment and starvation. Being very active in labour circles, anarchists preached the slogan “active struggle with the bourgeoisie” by political and economic terror. Such slogans were finding supporters among oppressed and exploited in the Russian society. The outbreak of the revolution in 1905 contributed to increased interest in this doctrine in Russia. Anarchism has become fashionable in some circles of the intelligentsia, who started to adapt the doctrine to local conditions and develop it creatively. Political and terrorist struggle led by the anarchists against the tsarist regime, met with firm response from the authorities. They started repressions, which consequently led to the collapse of the revolution and the destruction of the growing labour movement in Russia. In spring and summer of 1906 in Russia revolutionary sentiments had begun to subside and the counter-revolution had begun to arise. In some provinces there was a state of war imposed by the tsarist authorities in 1905, others were hold in readiness. General-governors, governors and heads of municipal acquired dictatorial powers. In order to suppress the revolution, tsarist authorities transported troops from the Russian-Japanese war to regions with revolutionary activities. They began to brutally fight against the revolutionary movement. It consisted of organising pogroms, arrests, the intro duction of the war law, exiles to Siberia, round-ups, rapes, unpunished murders, demolitions of suspects’ housing, robbing and beating or torture of detainees. High monetary fines for the slightest offense were also used as another measure of repressions. Over time, repressions became mass executions. But the biggest victim in this struggle was the anarchist movement. Its organisational structure was broken, and activists were arrested and sentenced to death or exiled to hard labour.

Author: Marek Reichel
Year of publication: 2009
Source: Show
Pages: 65-88
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm200904
PDF: ksm/13/ksm200904.pdf

Abstract:

Malopolska voivodeship is one of the most diverse regions in Poland with a view to level of economical development. It is on the 5 th place in the country, even though it has significant social and economical potential (7,2% of gross domestic product). Relatively strong position in economy of the country is the result of big participation in global production, which is being selled for industry and construction industry, activity in a field of the housing industry and low level of unemployment. However negative tendency is observed, for instance: traditional economy with very low level of competitiveness is dominating in many branches of industry in Malopolska voivodeship. This paper is an attempt to judge development of Malopolska voivodeship in dynamic order, in years 1999 – 2007. Comparative analysis has been carried out; development of Malopolska voivodeship was compared with other Polish regions. Accepted methodology of research needs to find the right synthetic development indicator in the scope of selected components, which are; demography, human recourses, labour market, industrial potential, agriculture, technical infrastructure, conditions of live, healthcare and social care, education and upbringing, present state of environment and it’s protection. From the point of view of the carried out research it seems very positive, that Polish regions noticed growth of development potential in the tested period. It is especially important to pay attention on Slaskie voivodeship potential (in years 1999 – 2006 this voivodeship had the highest synthetic development indicators) and Lodzkie voivodeship (the highest development potential in 2007). Development of Malopolskie voivodeship must be positively judged too. In the tested period this region had the highest development dynamics; thanks to this fact it was on the 7 th place in the ranking of all Polish voivodeships.

Author: Renata Mikitiuk
Year of publication: 2009
Pages: 89-102
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm200905
PDF: ksm/13/ksm200905.pdf

Abstract:

The implementation of new political and ideological rules to the government of postwar Poland also contributed to changes in the education system. Communists empowered their dominion by, alter alia, propagation of education and disposal of illiteracy. They realized that intelligent groups would approach unwillingly to the PKWN manifest ideology. To hold their power and create socialistic Poland they had to quickly and effectively change the awareness of the whole society. It was preferable to start from the youngest generation, from children at schools. That was why PKWN, and especially the Education Department, engaged all its forces to rebuild the education system. This objective was treated almost on an equal footing with the economic reconstruction. Teaching programs based on shallow Marxism and materialism were introduced into schools. The reality was shown in a spirit of classes’ fighting, history, especially the newest one, was interpreted along the Soviet perspective. The program assumptions ruling in public common schools and introduced by contemporary government were shown in the article. An effort was also made to describe their implementation level and barriers connected with them in the area of Scholastic District of Lublin.

Author: Stanisław Sorys
Year of publication: 2009
Source: Show
Pages: 103-114
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm200906
PDF: ksm/13/ksm200906.pdf

Abstract:

The article of Stanisław Sorys makes the synthesis of processes, events which bore on the formation of the model of the local government. Genesises of the local government one ought to suspect in Great French Revolution which exerted the incredible influence on further fates of the present world. Great French Revolution gave foundations of the risings of democratic states, as and systems of the administration, where all citizens have their own rights: political rights, economic laws and cultural rights. It caused great changes in all areas of the social life, while after many victories on fields of fights, seized Europe. The decisive meaning for the rising of the social self-government in Europe and in the world, had the fall of the feudal state, and together with him an abolition of the state state. Begun reforms were finished by Napoleon. However he changed the rule of the kelter of selfgovernments, creating it as representations of the government in the field. Also the Catholic Church, after events of French Revolution, began works over the social learning of the Church in the context of social matters. Already during the pontificate of Leona XIII arose first encyclicals concerning creatures of the man, his rights and duties. Encyclicals of following popes: Jan XXIII, Paweł VI, Jan Paweł II – more exhaustively analysed the creature of the man and the range of his rights to the worthy life in the society.

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Author: Benedykt Banach
Year of publication: 2009
Source: Show
Pages: 115-126
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm200907
PDF: ksm/13/ksm200907.pdf

Abstract:

The formula of Michał Kalecki for the increase in national income is the base of deliberation in this article. On this base factors precipitating and hindering economic growth are considered. As the result of this growth factors precipitating it cause reaching good effects, and factors hindering economic growth are the reason of making losses. In consequence, these losses reduce the increase gross national income. On this base a formula for this income increase was worked out. Gross national income, besides gross national product is the measure of economic growth, but presenting the economy globally because income from abroad (balance) is taken into consideration, too.

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Author: Sławomir Lisek
Year of publication: 2009
Source: Show
Pages: 127-142
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm200908
PDF: ksm/13/ksm200908.pdf

Abstract:

All business enterprises are set up to realize economical aim. This aim is this, what is most important to enterprise’s owners. It may be for example a net profit, or owner’s wealth accumulating, or increasing company’s income. Enterprises must realize their aims to last. This article describes which financial ratios inform the best as possible, how much the enterprise realizes economical aims.

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Author: Piotr Lityński
Year of publication: 2009
Source: Show
Pages: 143-162
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm200909
PDF: ksm/13/ksm200909.pdf

Abstract:

The article concentrates on differentiating the matter in which the politics of regional development vary from managing regional development as well as managing regional development varies from programming regional development. The presented article discusses the current matter of managing regional development. The questions raised are resulted by the fact that in April of 2009, the Council of Ministers, passed a document entitled, A System of Managing the Development of Poland, which simultaneously determines the design frame of currently projected State Strategy of Regional Development in Years 2010–2020: Regions, Cities, Rural Territory. In this documents there is a lack in cohesion of terminology in the range of the listed documents.

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Author: Tomasz Zacłona
Author: Michał Pulit
Year of publication: 2009
Pages: 163-175
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm200910
PDF: ksm/13/ksm200910.pdf

Abstract:

The present article concerns the importance of the rule of reciprocity. As such, it obliges the recipient of the favour to repay in the future what they were provided with. The aforementioned rule applies to a virtually infinite spectrum of situations. Individuals experience numerous opportunities to express gratitude for what they have received every time an interaction takes place. The rule proves to be so powerful that it is possible to notice its hallmarks even at the most primitive communities. Therefore it seems reasonable to apply it as a tool of social interactions.

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