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Author: Agnieszka Kasińska-Metryka
Year of publication: 2011
Source: Show
Pages: 98-106
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm201137
PDF: ksm/16/ksm201137.pdf

Abstract:

The category of political personality is one of the most important but the least known in political sciences. In common use it’s treated as a synonym of character (especially strong one). Moreover there are so many different definitions, that everyone can subjectively choose one. Political psychology do not prefer using instant definition, because theories are more useful to describe the phenomena of personality. There are many factors that influence onto personality and part of them can be shown as most important on political market. The age of the leader, his/her health condition, sex, attitude, threats etc. are some of them.

We can say that political behavior is motivated by genetic heritage, biological and psychological power. The leadership can be treated as a process or strong relation between the leader and his/her followers. It’s associated with the personality but also with social structure. Making decisions is the aim of every leader but only some of them can lead this process successfully (to the implementation). Leader’s personality is often idolize but to be effective he/she should have both – power and psychological motive.

Author: Benedykt Banach
Year of publication: 2011
Source: Show
Pages: 9-19
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm201132
PDF: ksm/16/ksm201132.pdf

Abstract:

  The paper focused on the technical development issues and emphasized the actual use of technical means in contemporary times, including – among others – tools and devices in the era of automation and electronics, and also robotics in the future. In historical time, the following groups of technical means should be mentioned in turn:

1) instruments and tools, as well as devices made from natural elements, especially of stone and wood;

2) instruments, tools and devices made mostly of metal, as well as equipment made – depending on needs – from different materials, including the ones made of glass;

1) technical means which boasted distinguished features of mechanisms (e. g. drawbridges) or even automatic machines (e. g. clocks and watches);

4) emergence of technical and technological conditions for the production of machines and construction of factories in the pre-industrial manufacture when the division of production deepened, broadened and fell into activities equivalent to technical and technological operations which initiated technical revolution;

5) implementation of assembly lines in big H. Ford car manufacturing plants which were the germs of production automatic machines initiating the scientific and technical revolution;

6) electronic devices, especially TV-sets and computers;

7) remote controlling of space objects and production processes;

8) the use of the internet for acquiring information and for communication;

9) the use of robots combining the latest technique and electronics, and working thanks to perfectly used software, which are a manifestation of great technical and technological progress, and have great perspectives for the future.

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Author: Józef Brynkus
Year of publication: 2011
Source: Show
Pages: 19-39
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm201133
PDF: ksm/16/ksm201133.pdf

Abstract:

In this article it is mentioned the problem of activities that were done by Polish United Workers’ Party in order to maintain and strengthen a socialistic country. Those activities were to protect idelogical and doctrinal status. It is the historical point of view of this matter. You can enumerate such basic problems in the article as: crises of People’s Repulic of Poland and their doctrinal explanations, the problem of creation ideologies of marcism, leninism and socialism. The article is only the first part to the wider description. It contains an important context because in the conclusions or other historical descriptions which show reality of the collapse of People’s Repulic of Poland, the problems are not mentioned. It is also essential that the article is based on the rarely used original material.

Author: Piotr Długosz
Year of publication: 2011
Source: Show
Pages: 40-53
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm201134
PDF: ksm/16/ksm201134.pdf

Abstract:

In the article results of exploratory researches carriedd out in the years 2007–2010 among seniors. Due to the comparizon of some surveys an accurate image of young generation. The analysis show that seniors tend to get a job, set up a family, gain the esteem, and high level of life. Mentioned aspirations are still under researches. The fall of education and religiousness was only recorded. Nevertheless educational aspirations among examined group are high and most youth tend to gain high er education.

Author: Marcin Gadocha
Year of publication: 2011
Source: Show
Pages: 54-76
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm201135
PDF: ksm/16/ksm201135.pdf

Abstract:

Błażej Zarzecki was one of the most influential Cracow bakers of the turn of the 17th and 18th centuries. He married twice, his first wife was Dorota and the second Elżbieta, and he had several children with both. Besides being a baker he was also a brewer and leaseholder of the “Morawieckiego” brewery. He went through all the steps of the clerical career in the guild. He was appointed a councillor, an assessor, a treasurer, a podstarszy and on 25th February 1710 he achieved the most respected position of prymas.

At his death Zarzecki left a will, however, his second wife desisted from executing its provisions fearing legal action by the children from Błażej’s first marriage. Once the inventory of Zarzecki’s property was complete, the quarrel ended with the so-called “friendly agreement”, i.e. an act of reconciliation aiming at ending the dispute.

Author: Edmund Juśko
Year of publication: 2011
Source: Show
Pages: 77-97
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm201136
PDF: ksm/16/ksm201136.pdf

Abstract:

The base material of folk schools in Galicia did not secure needs of this type of education. The fact that the obligation to establish and maintain schools fell on the municipality and the local people effectively inhibited the development of education and meant that about 50% of children did not attend school and became illiterate.

The situation of the folk housing schools in the district of Tarnow was similarly difficult as in other areas of Galicia. It was deteriorated by actions of World War I and the devastating behavior of both Russian and Austrian invading troops. School buildings were converted into barracks, warehouses, hospitals, losing its an original purpose. School buildings were old, often built back in the 80s of the nineteenth century. They were mostly small and the only chamber was dark and stuffy. Therefore, they did not meet the technical and sanitary requirements and were also often inadequate to the needs of the learning process. Sometimes the space for the purpose of teaching was rented from private individuals. Lack of funds meant it was cheap living room, but with enough space to accommodate a large group of students. Considerations of hygiene and sanitation such as the arrangement of windows, the brightness of classrooms, lack of moisture, air access were secondary issues. Classrooms’ equipment was mostly poor and accidental. At least three main furniture, a table for the teacher, different benches for students and a blackboard were constantly repeated. In the absence of the board, its function served a smooth wall or dense plane of raw boards. Teaching aids were rarity. They were made of wood, rarely of paper and cardboard. Thus one of the most important and difficult problem of general education after independence, both at the country and Tarnow became the issue of schools construction and equipping them with equipment and teaching aids. The size of school buildings was largely dependent on the number of children subjected to compulsory schooling and attended to schools. In many cases, these factors were not taken into account. The school buildings area was often accidental, dependent on the funds from the municipality and local community awareness about the need for school. The degree of this consciousness in many cases is still low despite the generous activity of teachers. Despite the generally better condition of housing in the county, it should be stressed that, as in the whole country and here the issue of the school building has not been resolved completely. Visible progress has been achieved through the efforts of educational authorities, support of local governments, more conscious parents and both teachers’ efforts and hard work, especially school administrators, who often even in a hopeless situation were able to find a solution of the problem.

Author: Mirosław Kłusek
Year of publication: 2011
Source: Show
Pages: 107-133
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm201138
PDF: ksm/16/ksm201138.pdf

Abstract:

In this press article we are trying to estimate an activity of bank institution in General Gouvernment which used pre-war apparatus of The National Bank of Agriculture. That bank was one of the largest bank that achieved aims showed to it by the government of Polish Republic II which was to service activity of agricultural reform in the mid-war period. As it is known, the German occupant authorities used assets of the same bank for other various aims. During World War II the bank was working on the basis of out of border laws in Great Britain.

There has not been any straight estimation of legality of The National Bank of Agriculture in General Gouvernment. The political reasons made impossible to take back the major part of its assets in the post-war period. Finally, the National Bank of Economy took control of the rest part of The National Bank of Agriculture’s property which was not liquidated. In order to analyze our question we have used as an example the transaction which was possible using an apparatus of The National Bank of Agriculture in 1940. The transaction was between the bank and earl Adam Branicki from Wilanow – one of the most powerful pre-war debter of the bank ( according to the amount of debt). The transaction included selling of the forest area Laski – Borki which was a part of earl Adam Branicki’s terrestrial estate to The National Bank of Agriculture in General Gouvernment and summing up sale price (2 000 000 polish zlotych) with the part of Braniecki’s debt. I have chosen the transaction to analyze not only because of its large value ( taking into account relations of The National Bank of Agriculture which was in charge of breaking up minor farmers’ properties) but also its relatively good documentary and last but not least, the variety of aspects appearing on the background of this one transaction.

Author: Arkadiusz Niedziółka
Year of publication: 2011
Source: Show
Pages: 134-150
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm201139
PDF: ksm/16/ksm201139.pdf

Abstract:

The article concerns the state and determinants of tourism and recreation services development in two communes located in Cracow Count: Michalowice and Zielonki. Among factors of tourism development issues connected with cultural heritage and environmental values were discussed in detail. The author presented the most important factors of tourism and recreation development in these regions, and characterized the tourism infrastructure including number of and forms of accommodation sites, and sport-recreation objects, too. Moreover, the most important tourism values located in two communities were presented.  In the empirical part of the article results of researches carried out in both communities in the form of direct interviews with officials in Count Offices. In the community of Michalowice the respondent was the vice voyt. In County Office in Zielonki the respondent was the official of this office responsible for community promotion. The researches concerned the role of local authorities in tourism-recreational services development and determination the most important factors of tourism development.

Author: Bożena Popiołek
Year of publication: 2011
Source: Show
Pages: 151-166
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm201140
PDF: ksm/16/ksm201140.pdf

Abstract:

Development of informal cliental bonds which resulted in the opportunity to gain importance in public domain, were one but not the only goal of this type of social relationship. Material or more often prestige support opened doors to eminent family affinities, paved the way to political and military carriers, won friends and allies, and in this way, guaranteed stability in difficult Saxon times. Political-military and economic situation, presence of enemies, war destruction, natural disasters of those days influenced the durability of such agreements. The person of the protector, his protective means (affinities, finances, offices held, closeness with the court) as well as temperamental traits (accessibility, joviality, openness) proved to be important. A separate issue was cultural patronage in the form of protection over a narrow artistic milieu of the Republic of Poland (architects, painters, musicians, printers, newspaper editors), which was a testimony to mental changes of the age. Or the long-time developed religious patronage over religious institutions and their representatives (monastic congregations and brotherhoods, churches, chapels). The reflection of the stiffening structure of the informal social bonds can be found in all written sources. The most interesting example of the patron – client relationship and the resulting supplicatory attitude are epistolary sources, which in a superb though slightly exaggerated way show the mentality of both sides. Those letters were a ritual cultivated throughout generations, where under complex ceremoniousness and verbiage the actual goals and hopes of both sides appeared. The visible division between the supplicant (client) and the favour-lavishing addressee (patron) outlined in the letters was preserved irrespectively of the status and social position of the correspondents.

Author: Łukasz Popławski
Year of publication: 2011
Source: Show
Pages: 167-183
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm201141
PDF: ksm/16/ksm201141.pdf

Abstract:

Perspective of socio-economic development depends on many factors, mainly the the respective structural and systemic changes, and the proper use of resources. System and structural solutions accompanied by the necessary investment and funds along with the institutional support will have an overwhelming influence on this development. This paper presents the problems of environmental protection and the most important economic instruments for the environmental protection in socio-economic development. In this paper first discusses the theoretical environmental protection, then the issue of instruments in this field. The work ends with a brief conclusion.

Tags: instruments development sustainable development

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