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Author: Lucyna Rotter
Year of publication: 2002
Source: Show
Pages: 145-152
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm200211
PDF: ksm/06/ksm200211.pdf

Abstract:

Throughout the ages the epitaph has been under evolution process. Originally small figure ofa dead person has evaluated into fair-sized spatial composition including image of admirer as well as extended religious scenes. Originally short information about a dead person has grown into a spacious poetica] works commemorating his deeds and virtues. However, its character and aim of its foundation stays the same since ages. Relatives and close relations of a dead person try to eommemorate his name in this way, having the belief in great influence of religious practices upon the dead per- son loss. awakening piety and contributing to his eternal peace. ln Malopolska (The Little Poland region) there is the greatest number of preserved gothic tombstones (ca. 70 % of all existing entities in Poland) The following epochs have also been represented here through many examples of sepulcrical art. lt must he tied to the great importance of Cracow and other cities of the region throughout the ages. On the area of Wawrzenczyce decanate there existed five of epitaph tombstones out of Middle Ages epoch - one in Czulice. the remaining four in Ruszcie. Three out of four Ruszcze epitaphs which were commemorated to: Gregory of Ruszcze from 1444 A.D., John of Kmysztoporzyce from 1465 A.D. and Hieronimus Branicki from 15 l 7 A.D. are lost. The ones that remained are dedicated to the memory of Wierzbieta of Branice from 1425 A.D. in Ruszcze and tombstone ofJohn Czulicki of the first half of fifteenth century in Czulice. In churches of this decanate one

Author: Benedykt Banach
Year of publication: 2002
Source: Show
Pages: 153-164
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm200212
PDF: ksm/06/ksm200212.pdf

Abstract:

The first part of the article deals with the beginnings of the first tourist associa- tions. It should be noted that they were the associations dealing with mountain tour- ism. In Poland the organisation was founded in 1873 and was called the Galician Tatra Society.  The second aspect is the specińc nature of the mountains and its significance for man. In Poland the Tatras are the most characteristic in this respect. It is therefore necessary for the state authorities to participate in the economic projects affecting natural environment, particularly in the mountains. This problem is especially true with re- gard to Małopolska region. Next the issue of limitations to mountain tourism is dis- cussed.  The second part of the article deals with the participation of the State and local authorities as well as business companies in economic development of mountain re- gions. It discusses some aspects of the problems arising in the period of economic trans- fer to free - market economy and after its introduction. Finally. the article lists the tasks and enterprises witch are (should be) undertaken by the State, local authorities and business companies in close co-operation.

Author: Janina Szewczyk
Author: Lidia Luty
Year of publication: 2002
Source: Show
Pages: 165-176
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm200213
PDF: ksm/06/ksm200213.pdf

Abstract:

The paper describes differentiation of chosen conditions of agrotouristics' devel- opment in provinces of Poland with particular regard and characterisation of province Małopolska. In the analysis, which describes complex occurrences, impossible to measure directly, it is used indirect measurement, issue of Mullidimensional Statisti- cal Analysis, so-called synthetic variable. lt enabled setting in order. and then assem- bling of studied objects (provinces) considen'ng synthetic value of measure conditions of agrotouristics' development.

Author: Agata Fuksa
Year of publication: 2002
Source: Show
Pages: 177-186
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm200214
PDF: ksm/06/ksm200214.pdf

Abstract:

For the analysis of the above mentioned socio-economic phenomena 17 diagnos- tic van'ables were chosen. Three of them (XI, X3, XI ]) are destimulants, and the rest are stimulants. The synthetic variable (q.) was created upon the basis of zero unitariza- tion method presented in Metoda unitaryzacji zerowanej (Zero unitarization method ed. by K. Kukuła). The administrative districts were ranked in decreasing order, and next grouped in four homogeneous classes of high, medium high, low, and very low standard of living. It showed that the standard of living in the east part of province is much lower then in the rest part of podkarpackie province. That can be an indicator for officials responsible for that situation.

Author: Jacek Strojny
Year of publication: 2002
Source: Show
Pages: 187-200
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm200215
PDF: ksm/06/ksm200215.pdf

Abstract:

Because of growing tendency, unemployment in Poland assumes the proponions of the most important economic and social issue. The society should be interested in making an effort to limit the unemployment and to balance the labour market. Actions in this area assume an indirect (improvement of economic situation) or direct (public programs on labour market) character.  In general. against a rest of the country background, it would appear that the un- employmenl level in Malopolska Province is quite satisfactoiy, although the number of the unemployed exceeded 200 000 in 2002. Unemploymcnt rate is diversi lied among administrative units of the province.  The shape of the phenomenon depaits from the one in recent years. During lirst two months of the 2002 there was noted an increase of the unemploymcnt. ln March there was observed slight drop of the number of people without employment. For the first time since 1999 the unemployment was marked off. Panially. Iimitation of the extent of the registered unemployment in second quarter of the 2002 was caused by legal regulation. Additionall y. proper statistical picture of the labou r market is disturbed by a twilight zone. Situation on the labour market is affected by the organisation ol' labour administration. Substitution of centralised system of relationship between dif-  ferent levels of administration for decentralised one. caused a deterioration of unem- ployed protection.

Author: Zygmunt Kamiński
Year of publication: 2002
Source: Show
Pages: 201-216
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm200216
PDF: ksm/06/ksm200216.pdf

Abstract:

The base of process aiming at forging and strengthening cross-border cooperation was an idea of inter-regional teamwork. The idea respected local loyalty and desire of political autonomy.  Crisis of the 18th century rulers with absolute power determined evolution of regional movements. It was the first time of revival interest in folk culture, searching for individuality and features that made it different from other regions. The consciousness of regional distinction was a result of awareness of differences in culture and larrguage.  Thanks to August Comte and his conception of a new model of the state. a new idea of local community was created. In the 19th century there was an idea of *democratic system” which includes cultural and administration autonomy.  In the 2oth century an idea of ”Europe of regions” gained popularity. It was a symbol of desire to create new portrait of the continent based on local structures. Regions had their own representatives in govemmental and non-govemmental organizations.  Council of the Community and European Regions (1951) aimed at protection of independence of local authorities and territorial units. In 1983 the Council changed its name to Assembly (Congress) of Local and Regional Authorities.  COOperation between regions is regulated by many acts. One of then is the Treaty of Rome (1957) that contains many direct relations with inter-regional problems. The Treaty on European Union (1992) created a consultative body called Committee of the Regions. As regional presidents. mayors of cities or chairpersons of city and country councils, the 222 members of the Committee are elected officials from the levels of government closest to the citizen. The Committee is the European Union's youngest  institution whose creation reflects Member States” strong desire not only to respect regional and local identities and prerogatives but also to involve them in the development and implementation of EU policies. For the first time in the history of the European Union, there is now a legal obligation to consult the representatives of local and regional authorities on a variety of matters that concern them directly. The Committee has cmerged as a strong guardian of the principle of subsidiarity since its first session in March 1994.  Under the new arrangements, there is a clearer division of responsibilities in the management of the Structural Funds and also a stronger application of *subsidiarity'~ taking decisions as close as possible to the people affected.  The most efficient forms of cross-border cooperation are euro regions (associations of cross-border regions). They are also an inspiration for further integration. The Europe of regions” means that those public authorities, which stand as close to the citizen as possible, should take decisions. lt is a principle which resists unnecessarily remote, centralized decision-taking.  Transfonnation in the Middle East EuroPe enabled the countries to develop crossborder and interregional cooperation. As far as Polish-Czech border is taken into consideration, there are ll)-euro regions on the Polish side (ex. ”Nysa”, 'Niemen', Pradziad”) and 7 on the Czech side.  Despite fears and prejudice, cross-border cooperation is a step forward European unity. A new reality is being created that is based on cOOperation. l'ricndliness and goodwill. European unity depends on politically correct relations with cross-border communities and institutions. European unity depends on us all.

 

Author: Danuta Bogocz
Year of publication: 2002
Source: Show
Pages: 217-230
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm200217
PDF: ksm/06/ksm200217.pdf

Abstract:

The paper presents the analysis of the level of development of technical inf rastruc- ture of rural areas of South East Poland. It shows the grouping structure of administra- tive units ( districts and communes) of similar degree of development of the chosen set of elements of technical infrastructure.  The results indicate that the situation in the area being investigated is still very poor, which in tum Claims a great need for investing in infrastructure as the necessary back- ground for further development.

Author: Marta Rozwadowska
Year of publication: 2002
Source: Show
Pages: 231-242
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm200218
PDF: ksm/06/ksm200218.pdf

Abstract:

Wojciech Wiącek (1869-1944) was born in Tarnobrzeg region. He was the social activist engaged also in the struggle for independence. He was a member of the State Council in Vienna (1907) and also a senator in the 11 Polish Republic (1927). He was active in the Tarnobrzeg region at the end of (the century and also in the interwar Poland. In the parliament in Vienna he represented the group of „stojałowszczycy”. He sat there until 1911. During the interwar period he was an activist of the People-National Union. He was a deputy Chairman of the County Council in Tarnobrzeg and also a member of the District Council in Krakow and Main Council in Warsaw. In the independent Poland he came close to the nationalist parties. In l922 he was a candidate of the PeOple-National Union to the Senate but did not get a mandate. He was elected to he Senate in 1927. A year later, when the mandate was over, he became a mayor in Machów. He was an author of many books and articles. In his literary output dominates joumalism and problems of education. patriotism and morals. This article is focused on Wojciech Wiącek personally and his activities in the field of struggle for  independence in the Tarnobrzeg region.

Author: Marek Delong
Year of publication: 2002
Source: Show
Pages: 243-254
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm200219
PDF: ksm/06/ksm200219.pdf

Abstract:

The subject of the paper is the doctrinal reception of the encyclical Rerum Novarum on the Galician tenitory until 1918. In the lands annexed by Austria. the reception of the encyclical less warm, and realization of its lines very limited. The reception was rather organizational than doctrinal; it was characterized by patemalism and conser- watism. The autor has taken account four Polish dioceses in the Austrian sector. In the period 1891-1918 the bishops announced pastorał letters and appeals devoted to the social questions. The pastorał letters. following the line of the encyclical, severely critised liberalism and socialism. Much attention, however, has devoted to the evalu- ation results of liberalism. After 1905, its popularization starts growing intensively, as well as development of organizations refening to it. Archbp. J . Bilczewski writes about the decline of morality, abysmal poverty of the working people, splitting of families and practical materialism.  The bishops put forward a lot of postulates of the social reform. They touched upon the problem of family wages, the protection of women"s and children*s labour, holi- day rest. duration of a working day and problem of accomodation.  The significance of the encyclical Rerum Novarum mainly consists in that it add- ed to the creation of the christian social movement and the start of the modem social thought in Galicia.

Author: Ewa Fogelzang-Adler
Year of publication: 2002
Source: Show
Pages: 255-267
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm200220
PDF: ksm/06/ksm200220.pdf

Abstract:

The main attention in the publications edited in Krakow during the World War H by a Democratic Party was devoted to the post war Polish borders. In the program- matic documents as well as in the underground press, the mainly expressed demands concerned the stability of eastern borders settled by the Riga treaty and westward cor- rection of the German border. The question of the southern border was neglected be- cause it was treated as a part of the idea of "east-central European bloc”. The projects of federation did not erase the territorial aspirations of democrats, who were very un- comprornising in their defense of the pre-war eastern borders and did not want to agree for the compensation with the westem territories in exchange for the acceptance of the Curzon line. The advantageous shape of the borders were supposed to give the liber- ated country its due role in the post war Europe, creating the chance to solve many social, political and economic problems.

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