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Author: Katarzyna Wójcik
Year of publication: 2006
Source: Show
Pages: 267-290
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm200221
PDF: ksm/06/ksm200221.pdf

Abstract:

The National Subsidiary Civil Service was founded on 5 December 1916. With its headquarters in Warsaw, it operated in the Łuków district, within the limits of the German-occupied Poland. The aim of the Civil Service was to employ civil workers moved in from Germany in various sections of Military Govemorship in Łuków. While on duty the civil workers were subject to the same military law as soldiers. Depending on where they were sent they worked in administration or as manual workers. The Civil Service also employed women and youths under 17. A number of organisations in Germany as well as civilians (teachers and clergymen) co-operated with the Civil Service.  The structures of the Civil Service were terrninated in 1918.  This study is an attempt to recreate the administrative structure of the Civil Service in Łuków in the years 1916-1917, with its goals and scope of duties.

Author: Ewa Kuźma
Year of publication: 2002
Source: Show
Pages: 291-300
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm200222
PDF: ksm/06/ksm200222.pdf

Abstract:

After the initial period of research on the Auschwitz concentration camp, when the studies were mainly concerned with describing methods of extermination and its con- sequences. researchers are now turning to sociological psychological and cultural is- sues. This article discusses the question of theatrical activity. This was initiated by the Polish intelligentsia, who saw theater as a way to fight for the preservation of the pris- oner's mental health. It began when the First prisoners anived at the camp and lasted until liberation. lt reached its peak while actors from Warsaw stages. the founders of the "Jaracz Theater", were at the camp. The productions included Cheerful and lyrical songs, poetry and prose recitations, music, humoresques, monologues and Sketches. There were original works but also adaptations of known literary and musical compo- sitions, as well as some with subjects related to the camp. They were performed by poets, actors and amateurs. This cultural activity resulted from the collective effort of the prisoners and served ”to strengthen the spirit". In evaluating art created at the camp we cannot apply the generally accepted criteria. It arose in particular circumstances and was connected with the experiences of its creators and the needs of its audience.

Author: Grzegorz Jamrozy
Author: Łukasz Pęksa
Year of publication: 2002
Source: Show
Pages: 301-312
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm200223
PDF: ksm/06/ksm200223.pdf

Abstract:

Historia populacji kozicy tatrzańskiej

Author: Krzysztof Sarapata
Author: Wojciech Lasoń
Author: Piotr Walecki
Year of publication: 2002
Source: Show
Pages: 313-330
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm200224
PDF: ksm/06/ksm200224.pdf

Abstract:

This paper undertakes a subject of biological tendency in technical and computer sciences. It presents here the common part and differences of biological and technical description of reality, their specific realizations like neuronal nets, genetic algorithms, bionic devices, cybemetic systems and bioelectronic models. The depiction of this problems concentrates around basic terms. their meaning, usage and different formu- lating. Biologization seems to have a permanent formal and semantical influence into diverse segments of functional or structural construction of a branch of knowledge. leading to inclusion of some methodological or content-related aspects coming from biological sciences. In this paper the aspects of methodologies and metatheory of bi- ological or computer sciences have been omitted. Instead, an emphasis was put on main biological concepts used in technical branches of knowledge.

Author: Magdalena Hoły
Year of publication: 2002
Source: Show
Pages: 331-338
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm200225
PDF: ksm/06/ksm200225.pdf

Abstract:

The paper presented above is with referring to article S. Moskal and A. Kotala: Young people of rural Małopolska in the political system transformation process; the present situation, aspirations, and prospects” presented in previous Number of Kra- kowskie Studia Małopolskie. It concerns the researches of young people from Małopolska from nine communes presenting different degree of urbanisation. The communes were divided on three groups: suburban communes, communes being found in certain from them to distance and group of three indirect communes.  The aim of presented work is test of qualification whether type of commune and more compactly her distance from municipal centres is factor differentiating opinions, attitudes and perspectives of young people in Malopolska.

Author: Renata Mikitiuk
Year of publication: 2002
Source: Show
Pages: 339-350
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm200226
PDF: ksm/06/ksm200226.pdf

Abstract:

The policy of the Getman authorities during the World War II was aimed at total destruction of the Polish school system. After the war it was necessary to design and build the educational system of reviving Poland starting practically from the basis.  New educational authorities were established immediately after the liberation. The most important task of the Educational Department was to organize school adminis- tration and begin the proper preparatory procedures to start schools.  On 2 August 1944. School Superintendent's Office of the Lublin Region was set up and then, between 27 July and 10 August school inspectorates were brought into beign in every administrative district of the Lublin province.  At the beginning of the first school year the most important issue was to stan as many schools as possible. Political changes were postponed. however it was stressed that fundamental changes were necessary to achieve the full democratization of the educational system.  This article is an attempt to recreate the work of the school administration in the Lublin region in the first year after the liberation. It analizes difficulties, problems and achievements of the public educational system in the school year 1944/45.

Author: Wincenty Kołodziej
Year of publication: 2002
Source: Show
Pages: 351-364
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm200227
PDF: ksm/06/ksm200227.pdf

Abstract:

The article A few remarks on secret teaching in the region of Cracow School Dist- trict during the Nazi occupation presents the contribution of a Polish teacher to the education of the Polish youth during the war. In these extreme conditions, despite the repressive policy of the Nazi invader, the Polish underground state was able to launch a whole sysyem of education. Peoople activeli engaged ineducation, teachers exposed to danger of losing their lives were able to organize, in the war conditions, a system of education of Polish young people and protect them against the depravity of the war. Thanks to those efforts the polish youth could take the so - called small examination for the grammar school certificate and a big one in the secondary school. In such a way. education in Poland was not discontinued despite the fact that the contry was under the Nazi occupation, when each legally existing educational activity usually finished with sending people to concentration camps. That is why that effort must be consid- ered as one of the great achievements of the Polish society during the war.

Author: Irena Kurzępa
Year of publication: 2002
Source: Show
Pages: 365-372
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm200228
PDF: ksm/06/ksm200228.pdf

Abstract:

The social, political and economical transformation that has been taking place in Poland for thineen years, has changed almost every domain of life.  It has opened new Chances but also has brought some threats. An open-market economy has promoted the development of enterprices, services nad manufactures. New private schools have been established, and local local council has been rebuilt. However, also some negative (especially from the social point of view) situations and circumstances have occured, such as unemployment or disproportions in standards of living.  Changing reality in Poland forced a group of sociologist in 2002 undertook a sur- vey conoeming interests, moral principles and aims of country and provintional youth over the Zamość region.  The empiric material - the result of the surey - has been compared with the results gained at researches made between 1987 and 1989. The comparative analysis of the empiric material shows that the interests of youths have impaned dynamism. Con- temporary young people show more interests towards school educations, literature and theatre than those who were inquied in 1987-1989. They have started to be interested in new subjects as ecology and agro-tourism.  Modern medias like television, radio and internet have started to play a signińcant role as a source of information, and the role of family and church has decreased.  Likewise in researches from 1987-1989, a human being who doesn't hun other people or animals has been of great importance. The religiosity and subordination to fundamental rules are not as importand as they used to be concerning the estimation of morality  Young people aims have also changed. The researched group shows that an inter- esting job, friends and leisure activities have been of the highest estimation. A posi- tive is also the fact, that contemporary young people appreciate education, high qualińcations, tolerance and impartiality.  What may worry is the fact that youths do not show the interest in economical is- sues and underestimate the importance of law and social principles.

Author: Piotr Wojciechowski
Year of publication: 2002
Source: Show
Pages: 373-380
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm200229
PDF: ksm/06/ksm200229.pdf

Abstract:

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