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Author: Bożena Popiołek
Year of publication: 2013
Source: Show
Pages: 423-433
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm201328
PDF: ksm/18/ksm201328.pdf


The last will of Magdalena Lubomirska is a very interesting document of fe­male mentality. She was a polish noble women jointed with the king’s court of Augustus II Wettin. She presented the economic problem of her fortune and she created the schooling system for her children, and she protected their life as the orphans.

Tags: Saxon period last will biography

Author: Andrzej Chodubski
Year of publication: 2013
Source: Show
Pages: 9-22
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm201301
PDF: ksm/18/ksm201301.pdf


The present study to shows:

1) since the beginning of its existence this institution met with approval of wide social circles and the criticism of intellectuals, paying attention to the impossibility of its realization according to the ideological vocation and with assumptions;

2) from the time of the French Revolution 1789–1799 democratic ideas are closely connected with populism. Politicians and ruling use tchem as fulfilling the will of the majority of society, and as a tool solving all sociopolitical problems;

3) political pragmatism, and includedperformance of the public life, cause that the idea of the democracy is replaced by the challenge of building thecivil society which is commonly accepted as sociopolitical reality.

Tags: permanent education the public authorities citizens liberty participation of individual democracy

Author: Lidia Lipka
Year of publication: 2013
Source: Show
Pages: 23-32
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm201302
PDF: ksm/18/ksm201302.pdf


Goethe wrote: „Mankind walks steadily forward, but the person remains the same”. Customs as a normative tradition ways of behavior are the important social community and have the power to unwritten laws. Are primarily trans­mitted orally or by imitation, once established are very slow to change. The article discusses the problem of looking at the reality of the two opposite poles.

Tags: love goodness psychoanalysis human Jung Freud Fromm philosophy culture society

Author: Bartosz Koziński
Year of publication: 2013
Source: Show
Pages: 33-42
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm201303
PDF: ksm/18/ksm201303.pdf


The article describes the issue of duality historical identity of Warsawin modern capital city. In the context of this relationship the author distinguishes between two types of identity Warsaw: independence and the post-communist. The analysis begins with the characteristics of the relationship between national identity and the identity of the place. The rest of the work raises issues of Warsaw memory locations that make mid-duality historical identity. In the requests, the author concludes, that the coexistence of two orientations, now is natural, inherent in the landscape of the city. The relationship between the two perspectives is both complementary and confrontational, and Warsaw is a place of attrition indicated orientation. The article ends with a question that could be the beginning of further analysis. In what direction will go the identity of Warsaw and the debate about it?

Author: Mirosław Kłusek
Year of publication: 2013
Source: Show
Pages: 43-59
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm201304
PDF: ksm/18/ksm201304.pdf


The fact, that movabilities and properties of Wilanów land property in the moment of buying them by Adam Branicki in 1927 should hale been evaluated at least 68 millions zloty, and not like it took part on 7,8 millions zlotys results from the researches which was carried out. It means, that under existed obligatory tax law of inheritance in that period, the amount of inheritance tax calculated from movabilities and properties of Wilanów land property for about 1 million zloty should increase at least to 11 millions zloty. Regarding, that even tax in fixe Mount wasn’t to manager by Adam Branicki. It is supposed with high probality that single increase of inharitance tax Gould involve with the necessity of immediate sail of large part of Wilanów properties.

Tags: land property property valuation inheritance tax constant measures of values

Author: Marta Chechłowska-Lipińska
Year of publication: 2013
Source: Show
Pages: 60-77
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm201305
PDF: ksm/18/ksm201305.pdf


After the May Coup Piłsudzki began the transformation of the political system in the direction of authoritarian solutions. Due to the lack of ideology, and also the need of public participation in political life, it was necessary to create mechanisms for the integration of the political system. The best tools for this purpose were periodic rituals – skillfully made by the ruling camp. They con­nect citizens between themselves and with government representatives . Analyzing the problems discussed in the pages of newspapers connected with sanacia, we can see the life cycles defining events in the Second Republic. These included name day of Jozef Pilsudski (19 March), Independence Day (November 11) and parliamentary elections. At that moments compeers of Piłsudski mobilized the whole society to work together, celebrate together, and seemingly involve in the public life of the country. Outside of these moments the system was free from political mobilization. The journalists analyzed the situation of Polish, mentioned merit and urged to be active.

Although the headlines showed very solemn, glamour celebration of name day of Pilsudski and Independence Day, they were a unique event. Besides poems, memories, articles glorify Marshall and distinguished soldiers in the fight for independence, there was no opportunity for the active participation of citizens in the celebrations. Except these individuals who laid flowers and take part in the official ceremony in Warsaw, the people accompanied apathy and lack of commitment. The most exciting period of political life however were elections. In this period appeared many articles analyzing and criticizing politics and party’s activity in Poland. Otherwise the elections time political life was relatively calm, sometimes disturbed by occasional ventures.

Tags: periodicrituals Józef Piłsudski the political system of the Second Republic of Poland authoritarianism

Author: Tomasz Dudek
Year of publication: 2013
Pages: 78-91
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm201306
PDF: ksm/18/ksm201306.pdf


The text was submitted to the action to be taken by the governing conservative country on the eve of the outbreak of the World War I. The main problem was to reform the electoral law to parliament. Among conservatives prevailed in this case big difference. While Krakow conservatives were in favor of reform and related concessions to the Ukrainians, their East-Galician countrymen have in this case the opposite opinion. The author writes that this issue dominated also the campaign for the national parliament in 1913. The new chamber resumed negotiations on the issue. Finally, just before the outbreak of war reform was adopted. Unfortunately, the relations had already been so strained that the ad­opted draft has failed to appease them. At the end of his discussion the author concludes that the events of the years 1913–1914 were one of the main reasons that led to the outbreak of bloody Polish-Ukrainian war of 1918–1919.

Tags: Polish- Ukrainian polish-ukrainian relations Conservative Party in Galicia

Author: Krzysztof Kaczmarek
Year of publication: 2013
Source: Show
Pages: 92-104
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm201307
PDF: ksm/18/ksm201307.pdf


Saami are the only indigenous people in Europe. Today they live in tundra, taiga and coastal zones in the far north of Europe. Their reach cultural identity is endangered. The Saami are the inhabitants of four countries: Norway, Swe­den, Finland and Russian Federation (Kola Peninsula). Preserving the Saami culture and languages is a part of European Union policy. The Saami culture is closely related to the nature so the policy of environment protection is also a part of preserving endangered Saami cultural identity. In the article the au­thor gives examples of regulations and realized projects financed by EU funds that aim for improving living conditions of the Saami living in traditional way.

Tags: Sami indigenous peoples of Europe northern Scandinavia reindeer Red Book of Endangered Languages

Author: Monika Bielińska
Year of publication: 2013
Source: Show
Pages: 104-121
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm201308
PDF: ksm/18/ksm201308.pdf


Forms of support for Roma in Poland coming from the European Union revolve mainly around the projects under the Human Capital Operational Programme and on the basis of the Community Initiative Equal Programme. Among the realized projects the special place is occupied by these concerned with the fight against unemployment and with the support of education among the Roma minority.

The projects, implemented throughout the years, provide a chance to change the perception of the Roma minority by the society. For the opportunity to participate in a holistic educational process and open access to the labour market seem to be the only way to improve the existing living standards.

The advantage of the projects which certainly cannot be overlooked is the fact that the proposed aid enables a change in living conditions of entire Roma families, while respecting their culture, customs and traditions. For only in this way an improvement of the living conditions of the Roma people and a gradual integration with the rest of the society are possible.

Tags: Support the Human Capital Operational Programme Roma society the European Union

Author: Arkadiusz Niedziółka
Year of publication: 2013
Source: Show
Pages: 122-135
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm201309
PDF: ksm/18/ksm201309.pdf


In the article institutions like agritourism associations and local authorities which take part in the process of agritourism services management in Lima­nowa County were presented. These institutions manages different matters like promotion and widely understood marketing. To aim it in the period Fe­bruary-March this year questionnaire researches were carried out in all ten rural communities in the county. In March this year questionnaire researches were carried out with the chambers of “The Agritourism Association of the Limanowa County” and “The Association of Tourism and Agritourism of Mo­untainous Regions”. Besides, history of agritourism development in this part of Malopolska Voivodeship was presented. It was made on the basis of data from the Tourism Institute in Warsaw and from results of researches carried out by the author of this article.

Tags: commune association agritourism promotion management

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