- Year of publication: 2019
- Source: Show
- Pages: 3-5
- DOI Address: -
The aim of the article is to define a rule of law for a proper functioning of the state, especially in the context of the provision of legal freedoms and guarantees to constitutional units. The determination of the was presented consequences of a breach of the rule of law which governs the complex acquis. The study will consist of attempts to define the rule of law, starting from the scope of this rule, on the basis of a doctrinal interpretation. This rule based on the Constitution of the Republic of Poland as well as on the Judgments Constitutional Court of the Republic of Poland. The specificity of the functioning of the European Union system requires to consider in this context the relationship between national and EU law on the regulation of the rule of law at the Community level. For the topic addressed, it is equally important to refer to the mechanisms provided by EU law to enforce Member States to respect common principles and values. The method used to implement the previously articulated objectives legal text interpretation.
Safety is a basic need for both individuals and state organizations. Prawo i Sprawiedliwość is a political party that often declares providing public security. The aim of this article is to identify solutions concerning public security implemented by the government of Prime Minister Beata Szydło. In the paper, the author analyzes declarations regarding the provision of public security contained in the 2014 political agenda of Prawo i Sprawiedliwość, and their implementation after the seizure of power by the above-mentioned political party in 2015.
The summary may not be so original, but I take the liberty of quoting Jan Czaja’s words which in my book are really accurate: „Summing up considerations on the topic of sources for Polish culture, it may be said that they connect - like opportunities for its development - with its opening to the world, what means opening both on global and mass culture (equating generally with commercial American products) and more and more advanced European integration, thus both process are not coherent. As a one, this process is extraordinarily complicated and conflictual. It is worth to remember that flowing with figments from another culture would be really dangerous, if it have met thoughtless and dull society which can afford on creative internalization but only mindless imitation. As Polish history shows, society was forced to life in the face of many dangers, its culture developed the best in periods of such dangers, mostly in places of their bigger closeness (for example on Eastern marches). Moreover, there is no agreement among theorists if dangers dominate or civilizational chances resulted from this opening. And at the end the nontrivial matter: opening for this stream from world (from West) is a result of our sovereign decision what makes the situation diametrical different in comparison to that one from the period of socialism when the stream of dominant culture (from Soviet Union) was a result of horrible war, Jałta’s matter and also political and ideological enslavement”.
Internal security is one of the key aspects of state functioning. In the current legal system Police is one of the most important institutions responsible for producing security within the state. The definition of security constantly evolves, as well as social structures and threats. Therefore, the rulers should react accordingly to these changes and introduce necessary changes and reforms of institutions that produce security within the society. The article presents an analysis of the ideas of modification aimed at improving Police’s effectiveness proposed in various political programmes of Prawo i Sprawiedliwość. To systematize them, they are described in respective areas of organizational, staffand legal changes.
This article contains information and analysis of the Security Service's operational activities against the Catholic Church in Olkusz, based on an archival document produced by the security apparatus. The territory in question belonged administratively to the Krakow Province, while in the church administration it belonged to the Diocese of Kielce. The document includes a number of important issues: a description of the Catholic Church in Olkusz, including deaneries, and the description and staffing of individual religious congregations (for which the security police also kept up-to-date documentation); Catholic activities, being part of the structures of the church organization of individual deaneries and their parishes; a current list of Catholic agents and assets; agent cases conducted against individual church objects and the clergy; repression of the clergy; issues of catechization; cases of religious construction; cooperation between the security division and civic militia; difficulties in the work of the Olkusz security service in church matters; and “hotspots” in Olkusz. Thanks to the agents it acquired, the security apparatus had current information on the functioning of the church in Olkusz, especially the clergy. Therefore, it could effectively watch over the church’s activities, neutralize many of its intentions, and punish defiant clergy in various ways. This edited archival document illustrates a wide range of issues dealt with by the Security Service of the 1960s. Its form, and this systematic range of issues, was imposed from above and was compulsory throughout the entire territory of the People's Republic of Poland.
The school protest in the Polish part of Russia and Germany that took place in 1907 forced young Poles to educational emigration. In Galicia, Polish-language academic institutions have developed a new elite. Together with Polish graduates of Western European universities turned out to be the main factor consolidating society around the idea of rebuilding the state. In the revived Second Republic of Poland, academic circles proved a counterbalance to autocratic rule in 1926-1939. The more so because the number of universities increased from 8 to 32 and they represented a high, world class level of education. After 1945, the rapid reconstruction of Polish universities and the consolidation of the academic community have prevented the communists from taking over higher education. In addition, after the turn of 1956, the autonomy of Polish universities was expanded despite the riots in 1968. Martial law and the breakdown of Solidarność resulted in taking over the function of socio-political opposition by academic circles up to 1989. In turn, the breakthrough made at that time was also thank to Polish elites, but at the same time led to a rapid development of the number of universities and the birth of academic capitalism. An attempt to violate the autonomy of universities in 2005-2007 stimulated the academic community and contributed to the collapse of the PiS government in 2007. Universities and the elites educated in them are in the long run more important for society than the institution of the state, material or economic resources, or armed forces. From this perspective, the Polish case confirms the proposed thesis and the visibility of the third function: supporting democratization processes in the society.
Research report „Political Behavior of the People of Toruń” is a part of a research project „People of Toruń on Politics”. The aim of the project was to learn about opinions, interest in politics and political activity, including electoral behavior of people who live in Toruń. The sample was composed of 350 people who filled in questionnaires. The results show that young people (up to 24) are less interested in politics then the older cohorts, that the main source of political knowledge are: TV and the Internet, and that the people who live in Toruń are not very engaged in political activities except voting. Not many of them are members of political parties or other political organizations; they rarely take part in political manifestations or marches. Analysis of electoral behavior of the sample suggests that the Civic Platform is loosing its popularity and the new parties, which emerged during the last electoral campaign, are popular mostly among the youngest.
The article is focused on four problems in Japanese-Chinese relations in two first decades of the 21st century. These problems were not solved by the last three decades of the 20th century. They are following: the dispute about Senkaku (Diaoyu) Islands, the matter of the textbooks, the visits in the Yasukuni Shrine, the problem of Japanese- -Taiwanese relations. The author carries out the short analysis of their evolution and meaning for the present Japanese-Chinese relations.
The article presents the problem of asymmetry in the aspect of threats. The reflections were made in reference to the Baltic Region. The analysis was made by approximating the meaning of the asymmetrical risk date and presenting the forms of their occurrence in the Baltic Region, and methods for their prevention and eradication.
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