Author: Jed Lea-Henry
Institution: Vignan University (India)
Year of publication: 2018
Source: Show
Pages: 553-570
DOI Address:
PDF: ppsy/47-3/ppsy2018308.pdf

The Responsibility to Protect (R2P) was created in the hope of overcoming the barrier that state sovereignty, as a principle, had become to actions of humanitarian intervention. It was imagined that as mass atrocity crimes were coming to the attention of the international community, that, on the whole, they were willing, able and eager to intervene in order to stop the violence in question. Holding them back was sovereignty as both a legal and normative barrier. This was always a bad explanation for the pervasive lack of humanitarian intervention; accordingly R2P, as a bad solution, has failed almost entirely. The problem is, and always has been, that when faced with mass atrocity crimes, the international community is plagued by a near-permanent lack of political will to action.


  • Adelman, H. (2002). “Theory and Humanitarian Intervention”. In Keren, M. & Sylvan, D.A. (eds). Interna­tional Intervention: Sovereignty versus Responsibility. Cornwall: Frank Cass Publishing.
  • Barnett, M. (2011). Empire of Humanity: A History of Humanitarian Intervention. USA: Cornell University Press.
  • Bass, G.J. (2008). Freedom’s Battle: The Origins of Humanitarian Intervention. New York: Alfred, A. Knopf Publishing.
  • Bellamy, A. (2006). “Whither the Responsibility to Protect? Humanitarian Intervention and the 2005 World Summit”. Ethics and International Affairs 20(2).
  • Bellamy A.J. (2006a). Just Wars: From Cicero to Iraq. Cambridge: Polity Press.
  • Bellamy, A. (2009). Responsibility to Protect: The Global Effort to End Mass Atrocities. London; Polity.
  • Bellamy, A.J. (2009a). “Responsibility to Protect or Trojan Horse?” In Barry, C. & Rosenthal, J.H. (eds). Ethics & International Affairs: A Reader Georgetown: Georgetown University Press.
  • Bellamy, A. J. (2010). “The Responsibility to Protect – Five Years On”. Ethics & International Affairs 24(2), p. 143 – 169
  • Bellamy, A.J. (2011). Global Politics and the Responsibility to Protect: From Words to Deeds. New York: Routledge.
  • Byers, M. (2005). War Law: Understanding International Law and Armed Conflict. USA: Grove Press.
  • Coalition of NGO’s on Darfur (2008). Rhetoric vs. Reality: The Situation in Darfur.
  • Chesterman, S. (2003). Hard Cases Make Bad Law. In Lang, A. (ed). Just Intervention. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press.
  • Chomsky, N. (2012). A New Generation Draws the Line: Humanitarian Intervention and the ‘Responsibility to Protect’ Today. USA: Paradigm Publishers.
  • Crawshaw, S. (2009). “Interview between Aidan Hehir and Steve Crawshaw”. Human Rights Watch, (17 August: New York).
  • Evans, G. (2006). “From Humanitarian Intervention to the Responsibility to Protect” Wisconsin International Law Journal 24(3), p. 703 – 722.
  • Evans, G. (2012). “Forward” In Breakey, H. & Francis, A. & Popovski, V. & Sampford, C. & Smith, M.G. & Thakur, M.G. (eds). Enhancing Protection Capacity: A Policy Guide to the Responsibility to Protect and the Protection of Civilians in Armed Conflicts. Australia: Institute for Ethics, Governance and Law.
  • Evans, G. & Sahnoun, M. (2002). “The Responsibility to Protect”. Foreign Affairs 81(6), p. 99 – 110.
  • Feinstein, L. (2007). “Beyond Words: Building Will and Capacity to Prevent More Darfurs”. Washington Post. January 26, 2007, 12:00 AM –
  • Garwood-Gowers, A. (2013). “The BRICS and the Responsibility to Protect in Libya and Syria”. In Maguire, R. & Lewis, B. & Sampfort, V. (eds). Shifting Global Powers and International Law: Challenges and Opportunities. Great Britain: Routledge.
  • Gordon, G. (1997). Ethics and International Relations. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.
  • Hehir, A. (2008). Humanitarian Intervention After Kosovo: Iraq, Darfur and the Record of Global Civil Society. Great Britain: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Hehir, A. (2012). The Responsibility to Protect: Rhetoric, Reality and the Future of Humanitarian Intervention. China: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Heinze, E.A. (2009). Waging Humanitarian War: The Ethics, Law and Politics of Humanitarian Intervention. New York: Suny Press.
  • Holt, V.K. & Berkman, T.C. (2006). The Impossible Mandate? Military Preparedness, the Responsibility to Protect and Modern Peace Operations. Washington, D.C.: The Henry L. Stimson Center.
  • Huntington, S.P. (1984). “Will More Countries Become Democratic?”. Political Science Quarterly 99(2), 193 – 218.
  • ICISS (Report of the International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty) (2001). The Responsibility to Protect. Canada: International Development Research Centre.
  • Ignatieff, M. (1999). The Warrior’s Honor: Ethnic War and the Modern Conscience. Great Britain: Vintage Publishing.
  • Ignatieff, M. (2011). “Reimagining a Global Ethic”. Speech to the Carnegie Council. 10 November 2011,
  • Orford, A. (2010). “The Passions of Protection: Sovereign Authority and Humanitarian War”. In Fassin, D. & Pandolfi, M. (eds). Contemporary States of Emergency: The Politics of Military and Humanitarian Interventions. New York: Zone Books.
  • Ramos-Horta, J. (2005). “Sometimes, A War Saves People”. In Cushman, T. & Marx, G. & Williams, C. (eds). A Matter of Principle. California: University of California Press.
  • Schrijver, N. (2000). “The Changing Nature of State Sovereignty”. The British Year Book of International Law 1999” Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  • Schulz, W. (2009). “Spread wide the Word”. Cooper, R.H. & Kohler, J.V. (eds). In Responsibility to Protect: The Global Moral Compact for the 21st Century. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Smith, M.J. (2009). “Humanitarian Intervention: An Overview of the Ethical Issues”. In Barry, C. & Rosenthal, J.H. (eds). Ethics & International Affairs: A Reader. Georgetown: Georgetown University Press.
  • Stahn, C. (2007). Responsibility to Protect: Political Rhetoric or Emerging Legal Norm?. The American Journal of International Law 101(1), p. 99 – 120.
  • Stark, A. (2011) Introduction”. “The Responsibility to Protect: Challenges & Opportunities in Light of the Libyan Intervention. E-International Relations. November 2011 –
  • Thakur, R. (2006). The United Nations, Peace and Security: From Collective Security to the Responsibility to Protect. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Tutuianu, S. (2013). Towards Global Justice: Sovereignty in an Interdependent World. The Hague: Asser Press.
  • United Nations (1999). Report of the Secretary-General Pursuant to General Assembly Resolution 53/35: The Fall of Srebrenica. United Nations General Assembly A/54/549. 15 November 1999. New York: UN Secretariat.
  • Warrick, J. (2015). Black Flags: The Rise of ISIS. Toronto: Doubleday.
  • Weiss, H.F. (2009). “The Democratic Republic of the Congo”. In Cooper, R.H. & Kohler, J.V. (eds). Responsibil­ity to Protect: The Global Moral Compact for the 21st Century. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Weiss, T.G. (2005). Military-Civilian Interactions: Humanitarian Crisis and the Responsibility to Protect 2nd USA: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.
  • Weiss, T.G. (2007). Humanitarian Intervention: Ideas in Action. UK: Polity Press.
  • Weiss, T.G. & Collins, C. (2000). Humanitarian Challenges & Intervention, 2nd Colorado: Westview Press.

Message to:



© 2017 Adam Marszałek Publishing House. All rights reserved.

Projekt i wykonanie Pollyart