Author: Paweł Ślaski
Institution: Military University of Technology (Poland)
Author: Małgorzata Grzelak
Institution: Military University of Technology (Poland)
Published online: 15 June 2022
Final submission: 21 April 2022
Printed issue: 2023
Source: Show
Page no: 19
DOI Address:
PDF: ppsy/51/ppsy202216.pdf

This paper explores the possibility of using lateral thinking to enhance student learning in higher education. Teams of students formed during classes using the „six think- ing hats” method, a concept developed by (de Bono, 1985), analyse a problem posed by the lecturer. This problem involves solving a commonly used economic rule considered in a deterministic environment, the so-called economic order quantity (EOQ) model. Students divided into research teams first solve the problem classically, using elements of differential calculus. In the next stage, they solve the problem using process analysis, re-engineering principles, and a computer application. The most important feature of this stage is the analysis of the problem, so to speak, from the end, i.e., from the definition of the goal, which is to determine the optimal order size of goods in the supply chain at minimum cost. The six thinking hats method is extremely helpful at this stage. The key benefits for students using this type of teaching are related to verifying previous thinking in solving the problem and adopting a creative approach to solving the task. Empirical studies confirm that this type of teaching increases the attractiveness of the class and the satisfaction of acquiring creative thinking skills and provides the satisfaction of solving a complex research problem in a team. Student surveys with a small sample (


  • Axsäter, S. (1996). Using the Deterministic EOQ Formula in Stochastic Inventory Control. Management Science, 42.
  • Arslan, M. C., & Turkay, M. (2013). EOQ Revisited with Sustainability Considerations. Foundations of Computing and Decision Sciences, 38.
  • Bacel, M., & Jaber, M. Y. (2008). Economic order quantity for items with imperfect quality: Revisited. International Journal of Production Economics, 112(2).
  • Battini, D., Persona, A., & Sgarbossa, F. (2014). A sustainable EOQ model: Theoretical formulation and applications. International Journal of Production Economics, 149.
  • Brown, R. G. (1959). Statistical Forecasting for Inventory Control. McGraw Hill.
  • Champy, J. (1995). Reengineering Management. Harper Business Books.
  • Chung, K.-J., & Huang, Y.-F. (2006). Retailer’s Optimal Cycle Times in the EOQ Model with Imperfect Quality and a Permissible Credit Period. Quality and Quantity, 40.
  • Davenport, T. (1993). Process Innovation: Reengineering work through IT technology. Harvard Business School Press.
  • Drucker, P. F. (1972). Work and Tools. In W. Kranzberg & W. H. Davenport (Eds.), Technology and Culture.
  • Drucker, P. F. (2005). Managing Oneself. Harvard Business Review, 1.
  • Goh, M. (1994). EOQ models with general demand and holding cost functions. European Journal of Operational Research.
  • Hammer, M., & Stanton, S. (1995). The Reengineering Revolution. Harper Collins.
  • Hammer, M., & Champy, J. (2003). Reengineering the Corporation: A Manifesto for Business Revolution. Collins Business Essentials.
  • Hammer, M., & Champy, J. (1993). Reengineering the Corporation: A Manifesto for Business Revolution. Harper Business Books.
  • Hansen, G. (1993). Automating Business Process Reengineering. Prentice Hall.
  • Hariga, M. (1996). Optimal EOQ Models for Deteriorating Items with Time-Varying Demand. Journal of the Operational Research Society, 47.
  • Hou, K-L., & Lin, L. C. (2006). An EOQ model for deteriorating items with price- and stock-dependent selling rates under inflation and time value of money. International Journal of Systems Science, 37.
  • Hoffmann, L. M. A., & Koifman, L. (2013). O olhar supervisivo na perspectiva da ativação deprocessos de mudança. Physis, 23(2), 573–587.
  • Huang, Y-F. (2003). Optimal retailer’s ordering policies in the EOQ model under trade credit financing. Journal of the Operational Research Society, 54.
  • Khan, M., Jaber, M. Y., & Bonney, M. (2011). An economic order quantity (EOQ) for items with imperfect quality and inspection errors. International Journal of Production Economics, 133(1).
  • Krzyżaniak, S. (2002). Basics of Inventory Management in Examples. Biblioteka Logistyka, ILiM.
  • Lewis, C. D. (1975). Demand Analysis and Inventory Control. Saxon House / Lexington Books.
  • Maity, S., Chakraborty, A., Kumar, De S., Prasad Mondal, S., & Shariful, A. (2020). A comprehensive study of a backlogging EOQ model with nonlinear heptagonal dense fuzzy environment. RAIRO Operations Research, 54.
  • Mostafijur, R., Prasad Mondal, S., & Shariful, A. (2021). An estimation of effects of memory and learning experience on the EOQ model with price dependent demand. RAIRO - Operations Research.
  • Santos, J., Simões Figueiredo, A., & Vieira, M. (2019). Innovative pedagogical practices in higher education: An integrative literature review. Nurse Education Today.
  • Prosser, M., Trigwell, K., & Taylor, P. (1994). A phenomenographic study of academics’ conceptions of science learning and teaching. Learn. Instr. 4(3), 217–231.
  • Sarjusz-Wolski, Z. (2000). Sterowanie zapasami w przedsiębiorstwie. PWE.
  • Sphicas, G. P. (2006). EOQ and EPQ with linear and fixed backorder costs: Two cases identified and models analysed without calculus. International Journal of Production Economics, 100.
  • Stanisz, A. (2007). Przystępny kurs statystyki. Statsoft.
  • Taleizadeh, A. (2014). An EOQ model with partial backordering and advance payments for an evaporating item. International Journal of Production Economics, 155.
  • Vujošević, M., Petrović, D., & Petrović, R. (1996). EOQ formula when inventory cost is fuzzy. International Journal of Production Economics, 45.
  • Wen-Kai, H. K., & Hong-Fwu, Y. (2009). EOQ model for imperfective items under a one-time-only discount. Omega, 37(5).
  • Yan, H., & Cheng, T. C. E. (1998). Optimal production stopping and restarting times for an EOQ model with deteriorating items. Journal of the Operational Research Society, 49.

Message to:



© 2017 Adam Marszałek Publishing House. All rights reserved.

Projekt i wykonanie Pollyart