Nr 2(11)

Themis Polska Nova (11)

Author: Jacek Sobczak – redaktor naczelny
Institution: Uniwersytet SWPS
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 288
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/tpn2016.2
PDF: tpn/Themis2016_11.pdf

Spis treści

  • Mateusz Maria Bieczyński „Piękno nie służy sztuce” – o nieprzydatności kryterium estetycznego dla prawnej oceny dzieł sztuki (strona 5)
  • Bogdan Grzeloński Rafała Lemkina autobiografia (strona 33)
  • Maria Lidón, Lara Ortiz Turismo sostenible: La Intervención Administrativa del sector turistico en defensa del Dominio Público Marítimo Terrestre (strona 50)
  • Jacek Sobczak Myśl polityczna Wincentego Lutosławskiego (strona 62)
  • Ryszard Czerniawski Kolegialny zarząd spółki akcyjnej: członkowie równi i równiejsi? (strona 104)
  • Piotr Jóźwiak, Piotr Herbowski Wykorzystanie metod badawczych socjologii prawa przy rozważaniach nad istotą odpowiedzialności dyscyplinarnej (strona 114)
  • Katarzyna Chałubińska-Jentkiewicz Otwartość zasobów jako zadanie administracji publicznej – zagadnienia definicyjne (strona 134)
  • Paulina Kwiatkowska-Serafin Czy istnieją granice dozwolonej krytyki. O relacji kontratypu określonego w art. 41 ustawy – prawo prasowe z kontratypem zapisanym w art. 213 k.k. (strona 152)
  • Michał Czerniawski Graduated Response – a Comprehensive Solution in the War Against Online Piracy? (strona 164)
  • Marta Szuniewicz-Stępień Zasady postępowania z dziećmi pozbawionymi opieki w procedurach azylowych – kilka uwag na tle zalecanego standardu międzynarodowego (strona 186)
  • Ryszarda Stasiak Instytucja notariatu w prawie szwedzkim (strona 219)
  • Wilińska-Zelek „Handlowe” i „niehandlowe” aspekty prawa autorskiego – konsekwencje problemów wyznaczania linii demarkacyjnej (strona 232)
  • Jakub Cywiński Utwór audiowizualny w orzecznictwie (strona 248)
  • Marta Lorczyk Gender mainstreaming jako polityka gospodarcza Unii Europejskiej (strona 266)
  • Witold Sobczak Stadtmüller, J. Sadłocha, M. Różycki. M. Głowacka (red.), Nagroda Nobla a kontrowersje związane z wyborem jej laureatów, Oficyna Wydawnicza Arboretum, Wydział Nauk Społecznych Uniwersytetu Wrocławskiego, Wrocław 2015, ss. 203 (strona 286)

Spis Treści

Author: The Editors
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 3-4
DOI Address: -
PDF: tpn/11/TPN20162toc.pdf

„Piękno nie służy sztuce” – o nieprzydatności kryterium estetycznego dla prawnej oceny dzieł sztuki

Author: Mateusz Maria Bieczyński
Institution: Uniwersytet Artystyczny w Poznaniu
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 5-32
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/tpn2016.2.01
PDF: tpn/11/TPN2016201.pdf

The main purpose of this article is to develop a dogmatic reflection about the significance of the aesthetic criteria in juridical decision-making. Main focus concentrates on the case-law, in which the aesthetic evaluation was revoked as an argument in the courtroom. Research is directed on establishing of a dogmatic frame for the future investigation of that topic. It offers a non systematic typology of cases. To realize this objective, at least on a basic level, consideration the following aspects is required. Firstly, it seems necessary to show examples of situations in which non- -legal, aesthetic arguments have been ‚smuggled’ into the court discourse by the lawyers themselves – including judges. Secondly, it seems necessary to build a general frame for the philosophical, art-critical and social conditions of the close relationship of law and aesthetics. The tendency for lawyers to ‚serve’ the aesthetic theories in argumentative situations of uncertainty appears to be historically conditioned – it finds its roots in the common law and the philosophical foundations of art, in the tradition of European culture. Thirdly, it seems reasonable to identify those cases that were ‘noble exceptions’ to the rule of lack of lawyers’ consciousness of problems connected to art history and aesthetics. Although the concern of this article is not a reconstruction of the historical evolution of the relationship between law and aesthetics, but the analysis of the modern aspects of their relation, the reference to the cases from the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, in which the issue was under consideration, appears to be useful for demonstrating continuity of the problem described. Fourthly, this article attempts to assess the socio-cultural conditions of the ‘legal escape’ into aesthetic argumentation in situations of uncertainty about the meaning of art. It appears that the formula of aesthetic reasoning adopted as the basis for the legal assessment of artworks is not without culturally conditioned meanings – it is no a procedure, which is neutral and free of politics. Fifthly, it is impossible to ignore questions about possible alternatives to the theory of aesthetic as a criterion for assessing the value of the artworks in science and law. The rejection of aesthetics and the related thesis proclaiming that art always serves beauty, requires the submission of proposals for the adoption of another operative alternative solutions, which would fill ‚argumentative void’ and also save the object (art) from having no point of argumentative reference in the legal argumentation

art and law art on trial aesthetic criteria art justification prawo i sztuka sztuka przed sądem kryterium estetyczne kontratyp sztuki

Rafała Lemkina autobiografia

Author: Bogdan Grzeloński
Institution: Uniwersytet Humanistycznospołeczny SWPS
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 33-49
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/tpn2016.2.02
PDF: tpn/11/TPN2016202.pdf

Raphael Lemkin (1900–1959), a Polish-born jurist and Holocaust survior lead an extraordinary life of struggle – to educate the world about genocide and create mechanisms to punish perpetrators .Because of that his „Totally Unofficial. The Autobiography of Raphael Lemkin” draws attention. While writing about the book Bogdan Grzeloński gives a spotlight to these issues and events that Lemkins is silent about. Based on the newest resarch and publications he presents in detail the beginnings of Lemkins University education. He explains why Lemkn resigned from the prosecutors office and became lawyer. He describes how Lemkin was consistently building his position among the lawyers in Europe. He presents new fact about how Lemkins managed to save himself from Holocaust and flee from two aggressors, German and Soviet, that invaded Poland. And how, thanks to his acqauitance with the prominent Swedish laywer Karl Schlyter Lemkin first go to Stockholm and later emigrated to the United States. Finally Bogdan Grzeloński gives an account of Lemkins involment in the establishment of the Nuerenberg Tribunal. He is of the opinion, that even if many facts were omitted from this work, it dosent diminish its signifance. Raphael Lemkin autobiography is still an extraordinary book.

Raphael Lemkin autobiography high education Warsaw years in Sweden in United States of America problem of genoicide Roosevelt policy toward Jews Nuremberg – unfinished project convention alone and poor Rafał Lemkin auotobiografia wykształcenie warszawskie lata w Szwecji w Stanach Zjednoczonych Ameryki problem ludobójstwa polityka Roosevelta wobec Żydów Norymbergia – niedokończony projekt konwencja samotny i biedny

Turismo sostenible: La Intervención Administrativa del sector turistico en defensa del Dominio Público Marítimo Terrestre

Author: Maria Lidón Lara Ortiz
Institution: Universitat Jaume I
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 50-61
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/tpn2016.2.03
PDF: tpn/11/TPN2016203.pdf

Coasts have always been a subject of intense protection and have been considered as a collective good of particular value for the humans. In Spain, given the State ownership thereof and its configuration as a public domain good, its legal regime lead us to consider the littoral lands as an inalienable, unseizable, and imprescriptible property. Its traditional protection has carried as well, a considerable amount of prohibitions and limitations on its use. But, nowadays, administrative intervention has focused its attention in some economic sectors as the tourist one in order to limit its development to suit it in an environmental protection politic that is needed to balance the littoral preservation with the exploitation of one of the most important economic sectors in Spain, as it is the tourist one. This work aims to show an outlook of the current regulation of the coasts as the scope in which the tourist sector development has to suit.

konserwacja wybrzeża interwencja administracyjna sektor turystyki zrównoważona turystyka littoral preservation administrative intervention tourist sector coasts regime Sustainable tourism rozwój development

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Myśl polityczna Wincentego Lutosławskiego

Author: Jacek Sobczak
Institution: Uniwersytet Humanistycznospołeczny SWPS w Warszawie
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 62-103
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/tpn2016.2.04
PDF: tpn/11/TPN2016204.pdf

According to W. Lutosławski, every nation has its language/tongue, its historical past, but none of these features alone or in whole, does not determine the nation. He notices, that “only an existing national type, the kind of the ego is creating its language, its history and is impersonating the certain race”. The amount of such types is, according to W. Lutosławski, limited and not every people speaking the different language are a nation even if it has the racial distinction/separatness and the political history. His further statement is not entirely understandable, that “the real nation in its being isn’t limited to one planet, but has its representatives in the entire universe, although on the different planets they are not speaking the same language and have a various history”. The language, the race, the history, the custom – they aren’t creating the nation the more so that everyone can speak foreign languages. A nation isn’t the entire mass of people speaking one language but a slim circle of spirits, which are conscious of their separateness amongst the other nations. “The national awareness is an awareness of the existence of the ego fundamentally similar to our ego and whereby differing in the equal way as we do from the other egos we come across”. This way W. Lutosławski seems to be one of the precursors of the researches about the identity, also the national one. A nationality is an outside word of the invisible existence which a nation is, and it won’t be possible to reduce the contacts of the individual with the nation to such elements as language, tradition, custom. So there is/exists a serious difference between the nation and the nationality. The people living at present are only a material for nations. The state, compared with the nation, is a lower-level existence, dependent on time and space The work of Wincentego Lutosławski is located in a current of the Utopian social-political novels of the turning point of the 19th and 20th century. It is worth the attention on the account of the role which, according to this author, the Poles should play after the world war, which burst in four years after publishing this book by him. It is worthwhile noticing the similarity of some, or even a majority, of his political ideas with the views of Polish conservatives. However what must strike the today’s reader is an inconsistency of the arguments of the author, the numerous repetitions, returning to the topics/threads/trains that seemed to be already closed, the lack of historical reflection, not to say factual mistakes in this area. There is no doubt that the philosophical knowledge of Wincenty Lutosławski turned out to be insufficient for making an effort of supporting the framed vision of the future with the historical material. However very interesting are the accurate predictions concerning the growth of industry, the trade, the transport – albeit the current state of affairs still does not fulfill the forecasts of W. Lutosławski.

Lutosławski social utopias political treatises Civilization geopolitics utopie społeczne traktaty polityczne cywilizacja geopolityka

Kolegialny zarząd spółki akcyjnej: członkowie równi i równiejsi?

Author: Ryszard Czerniawski
Institution: Uniwersytet Humanistycznospołeczny SWPS w Warszawie
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 104-113
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/tpn2016.2.05
PDF: tpn/11/TPN2016205.pdf

Coherent and logical system of functioning not only of the Management Board itself but especially of the mutual relationships between the Members of the Management Board of a joint stock company as introduced in the Polish Code of Commercial Companies, for at least several years is being more and more often violated, especially in so-called state-owned companies. This takes place through the appointment of the person which „performs the duties of the President of the Board” and accepting this unknown to the Code of Commercial Companies institution by registry courts. Moreover, such a practice is recognized also in the normative acts and the case law, where the concept of the person „performing the duties of a Member of the Board” is described as an institution distinct from the „Member of the Board”. The term „an individual performing duties” is not unknown to Polish law. Its essence is to ensure the continuity of operations of a particular entity or establishment for a specified time, necessary for the appointment of a new manager (manager, president, director etc.). In general, the „performing duties” status is acquired by the head of the body or establishment which steps down until a particular post is taken by the new manager and there should be an unambiguous legal basis for doing so. Recently, more and more often we can see in normative acts the notion of individuals „entrusted with performing of the duties of the President of the Board” and besides, specific for such a post, temporariness, it is linked with a statutory ability to „withdraw entrusted responsibilities”. In the sphere of commercial companies we witness situations where the registry courts, despite the lack of legal basis, order registration in the National Court Register of individuals to whom company’s governing body „entrusted with performing of duties of the President of the Board” despite the fact that the Code of Commercial Companies does not provide for such a possibility. The institution of „entrusting the performance of duties of the President of the Board” is unknown to this legal act. The essence of the problem was described by the Polish Supreme Court in its judgment of 25 October 2016. Together with a decision to return the case to be reconsidered by the District Court, the Supreme Court noted that it is necessary that the District Court determines from which legal provision such a right arises in matters of labour law. One should bear in mind that this issue is not limited only to labour law.

Open Joint Stock Company management President of the Board Entrusted With Performing of the Duties of the President of the Board Spółka akcyjna zarządzanie prezes zarządu powierzone pełnienie obowiązków Prezesa Zarządu

Wykorzystanie metod badawczych socjologii prawa przy rozważaniach nad istotą odpowiedzialności dyscyplinarnej

Author: Piotr Jóźwiak
Institution: Wydział Zamiejscowy w Poznaniu Uniwersytet Humanistycznospołeczny SWPS
Author: Piotr Herbowski
Institution: Wydział Zamiejscowy w Poznaniu Uniwersytet Humanistycznospołeczny SWPS
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 114-133
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/tpn2016.2.06
PDF: tpn/11/TPN2016206.pdf

In this article selected relationships occurring between the sociology of law and disciplinary law were analyzed. They show the convergence and complementarity of interests of both of these areas of law. Research methods developed in the field of sociology of law can be an excellent tool for research on legal nature of disciplinary responsibility and the problems that arise in this area open up new opportunities for the interests of the sociology of law.

sociology of law disciplinary responsibility disciplinary law legal norms moral standards professional ethics socjologia prawa odpowiedzialność dyscyplinarna prawo dyscyplinarne normy prawne normy moralne etyka zawodowa

Otwartość zasobów jako zadanie administracji publicznej – zagadnienia definicyjne

Author: Katarzyna Chałubińska-Jentkiewicz
Institution: Akademia Sztuki Wojennej w Warszawie
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 134-151
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/tpn2016.2.07
PDF: tpn/11/TPN2016207.pdf

Opening up public data is foster the participation of citizens in political and social life and contribute to policy areas such as the environment. The 2003 Directive on the re-use of public sector information set out the general legislative framework at European level. The Directive provides for a minimum degree of harmonisation. The 2009 review of the Directive indicated that, in spite of progress since 2003, barriers to the cross-border use of public sector information still existed. Some of these barriers can be tackled within the existing legislation, others cannot. The general re-use policy is complemented by legislative or policy initiatives in specific sectors. The re-use of public sector data, whether for commercial or non-commercial purposes, should fully respect European and national privacy legislation. The objectives of fostering open government data and protecting personal data can reinforce each other if based on pro-active and conscious information management by the public sector. Moreover, the implementation of open data policies should fully respect the intellectual property rights of third parties and the European Union’s obligations under international treaties on intellectual property rights.

Opening up public data re use the public services the public administration the public interest otwarcie danych publicznych ponowne wykorzystanie służby publiczne administracja publiczna interes publiczny

Czy istnieją granice dozwolonej krytyki. O relacji kontratypu określonego w art. 41 ustawy – prawo prasowe z kontratypem zapisanym w art. 213 k.k.

Author: Paulina Kwiatkowska-Serafin
Institution: Ministerstwo Kultury i Dziedzictwa Narodowego
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 152-163
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/tpn2016.2.08
PDF: tpn/11/TPN2016208.pdf

Form of an artistic expression, satire has been present in human’s life for ages. It has many varieties and forms. From the very beginning its practitioners have been subjected to the public authorities restrictions and have been getting into trouble with the ones who became objects of the artist projections. In Polish regulation – law, there is a justification of admissible satire, covered by the article 41 of the press law, witch is an extension to the justification of admissible criticism, covered by the article 213 of the polish penal code. However, there is no such thing as justification of art. due to this fact, the artist may be fully liable both for violation of personal rights and the offence of defamation.

artistic expression satire Polish penal code press law defamation wolność ekspresji artystycznej satyra prawo prasowe zniesławienie Kodeks karny

Graduated Response – a Comprehensive Solution in the War Against Online Piracy?

Author: Michał Czerniawski
Institution: Uniwersytet Humanistycznospołeczny SWPS w Warszawie
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 164-185
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/tpn2016.2.09
PDF: tpn/11/TPN2016209.pdf

Escalation of online copyright infringements resulted in a worldwide shift in laws aimed at fighting illegal file sharing on the Internet. A new model of cooperation between copyright holders and Internet Service Providers was created. This cooperation is called the graduated response. In its most restrictive version this system allows suspension or even termination of the Internet service provided to the ISP’s subscriber who infringed copyrights. Copyright holders definitely need a tool that will help in protecting their interests. In this paper I analyze graduated response system in order to demonstrate its advantages and weaknesses. I conclude that legislators around the world should consider alternative solutions to the issue of online piracy such as the notice-and-slowdown and the notice-and-notice approach. I prove that intellectual property might and should be protected online in an effective manner which respects subscribers’ rights and freedoms, in particular the right to access to the Internet.

copyright law Copyright Law Protection Internet Services prawo autorskie ochrona praw autorskich usługi internetowe

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Zasady postępowania z dziećmi pozbawionymi opieki w procedurach azylowych – kilka uwag na tle zalecanego standardu międzynarodowego

Author: Marta Szuniewicz-Stępień
Institution: Akademia Marynarki Wojennej im. Bohaterów Westerplatte w Gdyni
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 186-218
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/tpn2016.2.10
PDF: tpn/11/TPN2016210.pdf

Children separated from their families who are seeking international protection are in a threefold jeopardize: as minors, as refugees, and as persons deprived of their protectors. They need prompt and comprehensive protection not only during asylum procedures but also in all aspects of life normally provided by parents, such as but not being limited to: shelter, food, medical care and education. This article aims to examine and evaluate the recommendations and guidelines pertinent to the unaccompanied children as adopted at international level by the international organizations (UN with special regard to UNHCR and UNICEF, the Council of Europe and the European Union), intergovernmental organization (the International Committee of the Red Cross) and specialized NGOs (eg. Save the Children) and, subsequently, to reconstruct a recommended standard of treatment of the separated children in the course of asylum proceedings. The result of said examination and evaluation are model rules of treatment of separated minor aliens applying for a refugee status in the European countries. It encompasses the following provisions: 1) adoption of sufficiently wide and flexible interpretation of prerequisites required for being granted a refugee status, with special regard to additional factors such as age and special forms of child prosecution; 2) appointment of a legal representative for a separated child in asylum procedure; 3) adoption of appropriate hearing procedures suitable for age of the applicant; 4) introduction of facilitations in asylum proceedings and liberalization of the evidence requirements, including the principle of the benefit of doubt; 5) assertion of an effective right to participate in asylum procedure; 6) to prioritize the applications regarding the separated children; 7) a proper training of persons dealing with the separated children seeking international protection and their applications. The review of the laws and practice of the European countries enables the Author to indicate the main problems with implementation of the international standard of treatment of the separated children and to assess the relevant provisions of the amended Act of 13 June 2003 on granting protection to aliens within the territory of the Republic of Poland.

status uchodźcy procedura uchodźcza małoletni bez opieki Unia Europejska UNHCR the refugee status asylum procedure an accompanied/separated child the European Union

Instytucja notariatu w prawie szwedzkim

Author: Ryszarda Stasiak
Institution: Uniwersytet Humanistycznospołeczny SWPS w Warszawie
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 219-231
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/tpn2016.2.11
PDF: tpn/11/TPN2016211.pdf

The article discusses a wide range of issues concerning the Swedish model of the public notary institution. In the first part of the paper, the author makes an attempt to describe briefly the specific characteristics of the public notary institution in Poland with a view to showing subsequently the differences between both systems. Furthermore, the author describes shortly the historical background of the public notary institution in Sweden, and then points out how this institution operates nowadays according to the law about public notary, which entered into force on 1 July 1982, in particular who notaries are appointed and revoked by, who can become a notary and which the most important tasks of a public notary are. We are also given some practical details about how the public notary institution in Sweden works.

Sweden public notary document certifications Szwecja notariusz publiczny dokument certyfikaty

„Handlowe” i „niehandlowe” aspekty prawa autorskiego – konsekwencje problemów wyznaczania linii demarkacyjnej

Author: Anna Wilińska-Zelek
Institution: Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu
Author: Miłosz Malaga
Institution: Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 232-247
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/tpn2016.2.12
PDF: tpn/11/TPN2016212.pdf

This article discusses the issues related to the limits of the European Union competence in external relations in terms of the copyright law with a focus on the problem of defining its particular areas as “commercial” or “non-commercial”. According to Article 207 TFEU, the scope of the common commercial policy (under an exclusive competence of the EU) includes the commercial aspects of the copyright law; thus, it is vital to set a clear demarcation line. Through the analysis of settled case law of the European Court of Justice (incl. judgement in case C-414/11 and in case C-114/12) the authors diagnose numerous problems related to determining whether and to what extent the European Union has the exclusive competence over the intellectual property law. This also leads them to a conclusion that the European Union has a very wide competence as regards the conclusion of agreements concerning intellectual property rights, what poses a substantial risk.

commercial aspects of intellectual property common commercial policy TRIPS copyright law handlowe aspekty własności intelektualnej wspólna polityka handlowa prawo autorskie

Utwór audiowizualny w orzecznictwie

Author: Jakub Cywiński
Institution: Uniwersytet Humanistyczspołeczny SWPS w Warszawie
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 248-265
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/tpn2016.2.13
PDF: tpn/11/TPN2016213.pdf

The article in the eight paragraphs analyzes the issue of audiovisual work, in particular focusing on movie feature, providing the court rulings, in majority the Polish ones. The first section focuses on the clarification of the concept of an audiovisual work, using the textbook knowledge, the knowledge resulting from the polish Act of 4th February 1994 On Copyright and Related Rights and contained in the judgments of Polish courts, concluding that there is no leading definition of audiovisual work in the Polish legal system. Furthermore it considers the issue of co-authorship – who and to what extent has the right to call itself the creator of the audiovisual work. In this respect, it undertakes to clarify the contribution parts which pull together up the final image of an audiovisual work. In the next two sections it analyzes the beneficent of the audiovisual piece and defines the principles governing the relationship of beneficent and the author and the issue of remuneration for the authors work. In the fifth section it introduces the concept of collective management organizations, which is an organization that mediates the process of payment of accumulated remuneration to the creator. Section Six focuses on the issues of copyright protection and potential infringement, and states the rulings of courts, which allows reader to obtain a more practical understanding of the problem. Paragraph seventh evokes a complicated Polish case (the creator of „Stawka większa niż życie” vs. the creator of „Halo Hans!”). Finally paragraph eight focuses on a few cases executed in the field of copyright law in audiovisual work area in the United States.

audiovisual creation piece film collective management organizations the author user of audiovisual work protection of copyright copyright infringement the author’s remuneration spontaneous work a derivative work an inspired work an inspiring work co-author utwór audiowizualny organizacje zbiorowego zarządzania autor korzystający z utworu audiowizualnego ochrona praw autorskich naruszenie praw autorskich utwór samoistny utwór zależny utwór inspirowany utwór inspirujący współautor

Gender mainstreaming jako polityka gospodarcza Unii Europejskiej

Author: Marta Lorczyk
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 266-285
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/tpn2016.2.14
PDF: tpn/11/TPN2016214.pdf

The article is a review of the European approach to economic policy, taking into account the feature of gender, so-called gender mainstreaming. It analyses the legislative achievements of the European Union in this area and domestic solutions. There is also compared the situation of women and men in the European labor market, with particular emphasis on Danish and Polish examples, and the causes and consequences of gender inequality in economic decision-making. Identification of barriers to the implementation of gender equality in the social, economic and political aspects as well as possibile ways of their elimination is also attempted.

gender labour market law&economics Denmark Poland European Union rynek pracy ekonomiczna analiza prawa Dania Polska Unia Europejska

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