Independence in School Education and Scientific Work

Author: Wincenty Okoń
Institution: Real Member of the Polish Academy of Sciences
Year of publication: 2005
Source: Show
Pages: 15-25
DOI Address:
PDF: tner/200502/tner602.pdf

The paper discusses the importance of independence of thinking and acting, so in the school education as in the scientific work. In broader understanding independence means such an attitude of the intellect, emotions and will that makes one willingly undertake different tasks-problems and realize-solve them in a responsible way. Thus independence means the steady disposition to intellectual and practical activity in schools, universities and in the research work. When this activity is emotionally positive, it may create the basis for the development (in the process of school-university education) of scientific, social and moral convictions and attitudes, necessary not only for understanding the universe and for changing it, but also for the development of wisdom, which may be understood as harmony between to have and to be, among material needs and moral values.


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wisdom moral values material needs intellect problem of teaching problem of learning initiative independence of a pupil, of a teacher, of a professor attitude innovation

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