Relationship between Elementary School Students' Numeracy and Number Sense

Author: Rina Dyah Rahmawati
Institution: Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta, Indonesia Universitas PGRI Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Author: Nawang Sulistyani
Institution: Universitas Muhammadiyah Malang, Indonesia
Author: Yoppy Wahyu Purnomo
Institution: Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Author: Yeni Fitriya
Institution: Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Author: Deasy Ramadhani
Institution: Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 73-88
DOI Address:
PDF: tner/202304/tner7406.pdf

Numbers are fundamental mathematical concepts that underlie various other mathematical principles. This research investigates the relationship between number sense and the numeracy abilities of fifth-grade elementary school students. A cross-sectional survey method was used, with 205 respondents voluntarily participating. The results showed a reciprocal relationship between number sense and numeracy in elementary school students. Emphasising number sense can enhance flexibility in numeracy solutions. Number sense can be developed through assigning math tasks related to the students' environment or associating it with other learning processes. The study emphasises the importance of number sense in the primary school mathematics curriculum.


  • Askew, M., Brown, M., Rhodes, V., Wiliam, D., & Johnson, D. (1997). The contribution of professional development to effectiveness in the teaching of numeracy. Teacher Development, 1(3), 335–356.
  • Asmara, S. D., & Purnomo, Y. W. (2023). Context of Data and Uncertainty: One of the Challenges for Numeracy Provision in Elementary School Teacher Education. Acta Scientiae, 25(6), 235–271.
  • Aufa, N., & Manoy, J.  T.  (2022). Student’s Mathematical Literacy in Solving Asesmen Kompetensi Minimum Question in terms of Gender. MATHEdunesa, 11(1), 219–229.–229
  • Aune, T. K., Ingvaldsen, R. P., Vestheim, O. P., Bjerkeset, O., & Dalen, T. (2018). Relative age effects and gender differences in the national test of numeracy: A population study of Norwegian children. Frontiers in Psychology, 9(JUL), 1–8.
  • Aunola, K., Leskinen, E., Lerkkanen, M. K., & Nurmi, J. E. (2004). Developmental dynamics of math performance from preschool to grade 2. Journal of Educational Psychology, 96(4), 699–713.–0663.96.4.699
  • Barham, A. I., Ihmeideh, F., Al-Falasi, M., & Alabdallah, A. (2019). Assessment of first-grade students’ literacy and numeracy levels and the influence of key factors. International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research, 18(12), 174–195.
  • Borgonovi, F., Choi, A., & Paccagnella, M. (2021). The evolution of gender gaps in numeracy and literacy between childhood and young adulthood. Economics of Education Review, 82.
  • Broekman, H. (2008). Number Sense, Numeracy and Mathematical Literacy. 2(2).
  • Cheung, K. L., & Yang, D. C. (2018). Examining the differences of Hong Kong and Taiwan students’ performance on the number sense three-tier test. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 14(7), 3329–3345.
  • Contini, D., Tommaso, M. L. Di, & Mendolia, S. (2017). The gender gap in mathematics achievement: Evidence from Italian data. International Journal of …, May, 1–6.
  • De Lange, J. (2003). Mathematics for Literacy. In Quantitative Literacy: Why Numeracy Matters for Schools and Colleges (pp. 75–89). 89.pdf.
  • Dyson, N.  I., Jordan, N.  C., & Glutting, J.  (2013). A  Number Sense Intervention for Low-Income Kindergartners at Risk for Mathematics Difficulties. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 46(2), 166–181.
  • Fryer, R. G., & Levitt, S. D. (2010). An Empirical Analysis of the Gender Gap in Mathematics. Journal of Media Economics, 2(2), 210–240.
  • Geiger, V., Goos, M., & Forgasz, H. (2015). A rich interpretation of numeracy for the 21st century: a survey of the state of the field. ZDM – International Journal on Mathematics Education, 47(4), 531–548.
  • Gonzalez, A. M., Odic, D., Schmader, T., Block, K., & Baron, A. S. (2021). The effect of gender stereotypes on young girls’ intuitive number sense. PLoS ONE, 16(10 October).
  • Hassinger-Das, B., Jordan, N. C., & Dyson, N. (2015). Reading stories to learn math: Mathematics vocabulary instruction for children with early numeracy difficulties. Elementary School Journal, 116(2), 242–264.
  • Howden, H. (1989). Teaching Number Sense. The Arithmetic Teacher, 36(6), 6–11.
  • Jordan, N. C., & Dyson, N. (2016). Catching Math Problems Early: Findings From the Number Sense Intervention Project. In Continuous Issues in Numerical Cognition: How Many or How Much (pp. 59–79). Elsevier Inc.
  • Jordan, N. C., Glutting, J., & Ramineni, C. (2010). The importance of number sense to mathematics achievement in first and third grades. Learning and Individual Differences, 20(2), 82–88.
  • Jordan, N. C., Kaplan, D., Locuniak, M. N., & Ramineni, C. (2007). Predicting First-Grade Math Achievement from Developmental Number Sense Trajectories. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 22(1), 36–46.
  • Jordan, N. C., Kaplan, D., Oláh, L. N., & Locuniak, M. N. (2006). Number Sense Growth in Kindergarten: A Longitudinal Investigation of Children at Risk for Mathematics Difficulties.
  • Kaminski, E. (2002). Promoting mathematical understanding: Number sense in action. Mathematics Education Research Journal, 14(2), 133–149.
  • Kovas, Y., Voronin, I., Kaydalov, A., Malykh, S. B., Dale, P. S., & Plomin, R. (2013). Literacy and Numeracy Are More Heritable Than Intelligence in Primary School. Psychological Science, 24(10), 2048–2056.
  • Kuperman, V., Wild, H., & Kyro, A. (2022). How representative are student convenience samples ? A  study of literacy and numeracy skills in 32 countries.  1–22.
  • Lopez-Pedersen, A., Mononen, R., Aunio, P., Scherer, R., & Melby-Lervåg, M.  (2022). Improving Numeracy Skills in First Graders with low performance in early numeracy: A  Randomized Controlled Trial. Remedial and Special Education.
  • McIntosh, A., & Dole, S. (2000). Number Sense and Mental Computation: Implications for Numeracy. Improving Numeracy Learning, 34–37.
  • McIntosh, A., Reys, B., Reys, R., Bana, J., & Farrell, B. (1997). Number sense in school mathematics: student performance in four countries (Issue 1997).
  • Mellyzar, M., Unaida, R., Muliani, M., & Novita, N. (2022). Hubungan Self-efficacy dan Kemampuan Literasi Numerasi Siswa: Ditinjau Berdasarkan Gender [The Relationship between Self-efficacy and Students' Numeracy Literacy Ability: Viewed Based on Gender]. Lantanida Journal, 9(2), 104.
  • Mohamed, M., & Johnny, J.  (2010). Investigating number sense among students. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 8(5), 317–324.
  • Munn, P.  (1994). The early development of literacy and numeracy skills. European Early Childhood Education Research Journal, 2(1), 5–18.
  • NAPLAN, (2016). National assessment program – literacy and numeracy. May, 1–23.
  • OECD, (2019). PISA 2018 Results WHERE ALL STUDENTS CAN SUCCEED: Vol. II. OECD Publishing.
  • Purnomo, Y. W. (2013). Komputasi Mental untuk Mendukung Lancar Berhitung Operasi Penjumlahan dan Pengurangan pada Siswa Sekolah Dasar [Mental Computation to Support Fluent Counting in Addition and Subtraction Operations in Elementary School Students]. In National Seminar on Mathematics and Mathematics Education. Department of Mathematics Education (Educational of Mathematics) FMIPA UNY., 657–662.
  • Purnomo, Y. W., Kowiyah, K., Alyani, F., & Assiti, S. S. (2014). Assessing Number Sense Performance of Indonesian Elementary School Students. International Education Studies, 7(8), 74–84.
  • Richards, J., & Islam, M. S. (2018). Assessing literacy and numeracy among primary school students: A pilot survey in rural Bangladesh. International Journal of Educational Development, 61(June 2017), 55–63.
  • Souza, M. C. R. F. De, & Fonseca, M. D. C. F. R. (2013). Numeracy Practices and Gender Relations: Tensions and Inequalities in the Work Activities of Female and Male Students at Youth and Adult Education. Revista Brasileira de Educação, 18, 55.
  • Suryadarma, D. (2015). Gender differences in numeracy in Indonesia: evidence from a longitudinal dataset. Education Economics, 23(2), 180–198.
  • ten Braak, D., Kleemans, T., Størksen, I., Verhoeven, L., & Segers, E. (2018). Domain-specific effects of attentional and behavioral control in early literacy and numeracy development. Learning and Individual Differences, 68, 61–71.
  • Tout, D. (2020). Evolution of adult numeracy from quantitative literacy to numeracy: Lessons learned from international assessments. International Review of Education, 66(2–3), 183–209.
  • United Nation Relief and Work Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA). (2013). The Teacher’s Role in Promoting Literacy and Numeracy. UNRWA.
  • Wulandari, N. P., Ekowati, D. W., Novitasari, D., Hamdani, D., & Gunawan, G. (2021). Spatial Reasoning Profile of the Students with Good Number Sense Ability. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1933(1).
  • Yang, D.-C., & Sianturi, I. A. J. (2021). Sixth Grade Students’ Performance, Misconception, and Confidence on a Three-Tier Number Sense Test. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 19(2), 355–375.
  • Yang, D.-C., & Wu, W.-R. (2010). The Study of Number Sense: Realistic Activities Integrated into Third-Grade Math Classes in Taiwan. Journal of Educational Research, 103(6), 379–392.
  • Yilmaz, Z. (2017). Young children’s number sense development: Age related complexity across cases of three children. International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education, 9(4), 891–902.

numeracy number sense gender reciprocal relationship elementary school students

Message to:



© 2017 Adam Marszałek Publishing House. All rights reserved.

Projekt i wykonanie Pollyart