Grasping the Concept of Inclusive School in Slovakia and England - Q Study

Author: Katarína Vančíková
Institution: Matej Bel University in Banská Bystrica
Author: Štefan Porubský
Institution: Matej Bel University in Banská Bystrica
Author: Denisa Šukolová
Institution: Matej Bel University in Banská Bystrica
Author: Robert Sabo
Institution: Matej Bel University in Banská Bystrica
Author: Terézia Vaníková
Year of publication: 2021
Source: Show
Pages: 159-169
DOI Address:
PDF: tner/202104/tner6613.pdf

The aim of the study was to identify how education actors of two historically and culturally different countries - Slovakia and England - thought about the concept ’inclusive school’. The Q-methodology was used for this purpose, yielding 7 descriptions of inclusive school. The results indicated two facts: 1) there is a jointly shared semantic field that can be interpreted as a consequence of globalization trends in education, and 2) perceptions of inclusive education are influenced by the history of educational systems in the countries studied. Research findings confirm that despite a certain convergence trend, a local discourse still remains the crucial determining factor of the conceptual grasp of this issue.


  • Ainscow, M. (2020). Promoting inclusion and equity in education: lessons from international experiences. Nordic Journal of Studies in Educational Policy. doi: 10.1080/20020317.2020.1729587.
  • Ainscow, M., & Cézar, M. (2006). Inclusive education ten years after Salamanca: Setting the agenda. European Journal of Psychology of Education 21 (3), 231 - 238. doi: 10.1007/ BF03173412.
  • Arhiri, L. (2014). Kindergarten Teachers’ Social Representations of Inclusive Education in Romania. Psihologia socială, (33), 75-84.
  • Baker, R., Van Exel, J., Mason, H. & Stricklin, M. (2010). Connecting Q & surveys: three methods to explore factor membership in large samples. Operant Subjectivity, 34 (1), 38-58. doi: 10.15133/j.os.2010.003
  • Booth, T. & Ainscow, M. (2002). Index for inclusion: developing learning and participation in schools. Bristol: Centre for Studies on Inclusive Education.
  • Clough, P. & Corbet, J. (2001). Theories of inclusive education. A students’guide. London: Sage.
  • Gillard, D. (2018). Education in Britain: a brief history. Retrieved 05/08/2020, from www.
  • Göransson, K., & Nilholm, V. (2014). Conceptual diversities and empirical shortcomings. A critical analysis of research on inclusive education. European Journal of Special Needs Education 29 (3), 265-280. doi: 10.1080/08856257.2014.933545.
  • Gunter, H. & Chapman, Ch. (2009). A Decade of New Labour Reform of Education. In: Radical Reforms: Perspectives on an Era of Educational Change, edited by Chapman, CH. & Gunter, H., 1-14. London: Routledge.
  • Jones, C. & Symeonidou, S. (2017). The Hare and the Tortoise: a comparative review of the drive towards inclusive education policies in England and Cyprus. International journal of inclusive education 21 (7), 775-789. doi: 10.1080/13603116.2017.1283715
  • Kruse, S., & Dedering, K. (2017). The idea of inclusion: Conceptual and empirical diversities in Germany. Improving schools, 21(1), 19-31. doi:10.1177/1365480217707835.
  • Lowe, R. (2007). The Death of Progressive Education: How teachers lost control of the classroom. London/New York: Routledge.
  • Lukšík, I. (2013). Q-metodológia: faktorové zobrazenie ľudskej subjektivity [Q-methodology: factor representation of human subjectivity]. Trnava: PF TU.
  • Moberg, S., Muta, E., Korenaga, K., Kuorelahti, M., & Savolainen, H. (2020). Struggling for inclusive education in Japan and Finland: teachers’ attitudes towards inclusive education. European Journal of Special Needs Education, 35(1), 100-114. doi:10.1080/08856257.2019.1615800.
  • Olsson, I., Sand, M.L., & Stenberg, G. (2019). Teachers’ perception of inclusion in elementary school: the importance of imitation. European Journal of Special Needs Education, 35(4), 567-575. doi:10.1080/08856257.2019.1709704.
  • Sabo, R., Vančíková, K., Vaníková, T. & Šukolová, D. (2018) Social Representations of Inclusive School from the Point of View of Slovak Education Actors. The New Educational Review 54(4), 247-260. doi:10.15804/tner.2018.54.4.20
  • Savolainen, H., Engelbrecht, P., Nel, M., & Malinen, O.P. (2012). Understanding teachers’ attitudes and self-efficacy in inclusive education: Implications for pre-service and in-service teacher education. European journal of special needs education, 27(1), 51-68. doi:10.1080/08856257.2011.613603.
  • Stenner, P. & Stainton, R.R. (2004). Q Methodology and Qualiquantology: The Example of Discriminating between Emotions. In Mixing Methods in Psychology, edited by Z. Todd, B., 101-120. New York: Psychology Press, Taylor & Francis Group.
  • Thomas, G. & Loxley, A. (2001). Deconstructing special education and constructing inclusion. Buckingham: Open University Press.
  • UNESCO. 1994. Final report: World conference on special needs education: Access and quality. Retrieved 17/05/2020, from
  • UNESCO. 2015. Incheon declaration and framework for action for the implementation of sustainable development goal 4. Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all. Retrieved 17/05/2020, from
  • Watts, S. & Stenner, P. (2005). Doing Q-methodology: theory, method and interpretation. Qualitative Research in Psychology 2(1): 67-91. doi: 10.1191/1478088705qp022oa
  • Watts, S. & Stenner, P. (2012). Doing Q methodological Research: Theory, Method and Interpretation. London: SAGE Publication.

Q-methodology inclusive school inclusive education

Message to:



© 2017 Adam Marszałek Publishing House. All rights reserved.

Projekt i wykonanie Pollyart