Transforming to Teach in an Inclusive Paradigm

Author: Philippe Garnier
Institution: INSHEA, Suresnes, France
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 129-138
DOI Address:
PDF: tner/202202/tner6810.pdf

Since the Declaration of Salamanca and the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, we have moved to an inclusive paradigm with regard to school. Mainstream schooling has become the rule. Thus, teachers in regular classes must work with all students, including those with special educational needs. It is not easy; many teachers face dilemmas in accommodating all types of students in the same classroom. This conceptual paper proposes a framework based on Mezirow’s transformative learning for understanding the transformations in teacher pedagogy needed to work in an inclusive school. It can be used as a basis for developing training mechanisms to support teachers in their transformation to work in an inclusive school.


  • Ballard, K. (2018). Inclusion, paradigms, power and participation. In C. Clark, A. Dyson, & A. Millward (Eds.), Towards inclusive schools? (pp. 1-14). Routledge.
  • Berlak, A., & Berlak, H. (1981). Dilemmas of schooling: teaching and social change. Methuen.
  • Boyle C., Topping, K., & Jindal-Snape, D. (2013). Teachers’ attitudes towards inclusion in high schools. Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice, 19(5), 527-542. DOI: 10.1080/13540602.2013.827361
  • Carter, M., Stephenson, J., Clark, T., Costley, D., Martin, J., Williams, K., Browne, et al. (2014). Perspectives on regular and support class placement and factors that contribute to success of inclusion for children with ASD. Journal of International Special Needs Education, 17(2), 60-69.
  • Civitillo, S., De Moor, J. M., & Vervloed, M. P. (2016). Pre‐service teachers’ beliefs about inclusive education in the Netherlands: An exploratory study. Support for Learning, 31(2), 104-121. DOI: 10.1111/1467-9604.12119
  • Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. (2016). General comment no. 4: Right to inclusive education CRPD/C/GC/4.
  • Coombs-Richardson, R., & Mead, J. (2011). Supporting general educators’ inclusive practices. Teacher Education and Special Education, 24(4), 383-390.
  • Costello, S., & Boyle, C. (2013). Pre-service secondary teachers’ attitudes towards inclusive education. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 38(4), 129-143. DOI: 10.14221/ajte.2013v38n4.8
  • Croll, P., & Moses, D. (2000). Ideologies and utopias: Education professionals’ views of inclusion. European Journal of Special Needs Education, 15(1), 1-12.
  • Dally, K. A., Ralston, M. M., Strnadová, I., Dempsey, I., Chambers, D., Foggett, J., & Duncan, J. (2019). Current issues and future directions in Australian special and inclusive education. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 44(8), 57-73.
  • De Boer, A., Pijl, S. J., & Minnaert, A. (2011). Regular primary schoolteachers’ attitudes towards inclusive education: A review of the literature. International journal of inclusive education, 15(3), 331-353.
  • Eckstein, B., Grob, U., & Reusser, K. (2016). Unterrichtliche Devianz und subjektives Störungsempfinden. Entwicklung eines Instrumentariums zur Erfassung von Unterrichtsstörungen [Instructional deviance and subjective perceptions of disruption. Development of a set of instruments for the assessment of classroom deviance]. Empirische Peadagogik, 30(1), 113-129.
  • Florian, L., & Becirevic, M. (2011). Challenges for teachers’ professional learning for inclusive education in Central and Eastern Europe and the common wealth of independent states. Prospects, 41, 371-384.
  • Florian, L., & Black-Hawkins, K. (2011). Exploring inclusive pedagogy. British educational research journal, 37(5), 813-828. DOI: 10.1007/s11125-011-9208-4
  • Forlin, C. (Ed.). (2010). Teacher education for inclusion. Routledge.
  • Garner, P. (1996). Students’ views on special educational needs courses in initial teacher education. British Journal of Special Education, 23(4), 176-179. DOI: 10.1111 /j.14678578.1996.tb00972.x
  • Gibson, S., & Dembo, M. H. (1984). Teacher efficacy: a construct validation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 76(4), 569-82.
  • Ho, A. (2004). To be labelled or not to be labelled: that is the question. British Journal of Learning Disabilities, 32, 86-92. DOI: 10.1111/j.1468-3156.2004.00284.x
  • Judge, H. (1981). Dilemmas in education. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 22, 11-116. DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.1981.tb00537.x
  • Lambe, J., & Bones, R. (2006). Student teachers’ attitudes to inclusion: implications for initial teacher education in Northern Ireland. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 10(6), 511-527.
  • Leidig, T., & Pössinger, M. (Eds.) (2017). Classroom Management - Eine zentrale Gelingensbedingung für Lernen und Lehren in der Inklusion [Classroom Management - A Central Condition for Success in Learning and Teaching in Inclusion]. In M. DziakMahler, T. Hennemann, S. Jaster, T. Leidig, & J. Springob (Eds), Fachdidaktik inklusiv II. (Fach-) Unterricht inklusiv gestalten - Theoretische Annä und praktische Umsetzungen [Subject didactics inclusive II: Designing (subject) lessons inclusive - theoretical approaches and practical implementations] (pp. 43-62). Waxmann.
  • Lifshitz, H., Glaubman, R., & Issawi, R. (2004). Attitudes towards inclusion: The case of Israeli and Palestinian regular and special education teachers. European Journal of Special Needs Education, 19(2), 171-190.
  • Lopes, J. A., Monteiro, I., Sil, V., Rutherford, R. B., & Quinn, M. M. (2004). Teachers’ perceptions about teaching problem students in regular classrooms. Education and Treatment of Children, 27, 394-419.
  • Loreman, T. (2014). Measuring inclusive education outcomes in Alberta, Canada. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 18(5), 459-483.
  • MacFarlane, K., & Woolfson, L. M. (2013). Teacher attitudes and behavior toward the inclusion of children with social, emotional and behavioral difficulties in mainstream schools: An application of the theory of planned behavior. Teaching and Teacher Education, 29, 46-52. DOI: 10.1016/j.tate.2012.08.006
  • Mand, J. (2007). Social position of special needs pupils in the classroom: a comparison between German special schools for pupils with learning difficulties and integrated primary school classes. European Journal of Special Needs Education, 22, 7-14.
  • Mezirow, J. (2000). Learning as Transformation: Critical Perspectives on a Theory in Progress. Jossey-Bass.
  • Mitchell, D. (2015). Education that fits: Review of international trends in the education of students with special educational needs. University of Canterbury.
  • Morin, E. (1995). La méthode 4, les idées [Method 4, ideas]. Seuil.
  • Norwich, B. (1993). Ideological dilemmas in special needs education: practitioners views. Oxford Review of Education, 19(4), 527-545.
  • Norwich, B. (2012). How inclusion policy works in the UK (England): Successes and issues. In C. Boyle, & K. Topping (Eds.), What works in inclusion? (pp. 53-65). McGrawHill Education.
  • Pearce, M., Gray, J., & Campbell-Evans, G. (2010). Challenges of the secondary school context for inclusive teaching. Issues in Educational Research, 20(3), 294-313.
  • Romi, S., & Leyser, Y. (2006). Exploring inclusion pre service training needs: A study of variables associated with attitudes and self-efficacy beliefs. European Journal of Special Needs Education, 21(1), 85-105.
  • Rose, R. (2001). Primary school teacher perceptions of the conditions required to include pupils with special educational needs. Educational Review, 53(2), 147-156.
  • Rose, R., & Howley, M. (2007). The practical guide to special education needs in ınclusive primary classrooms. Paul Chapman Publishing.
  • Shapira-Lishchinsky, O. (2009). Towards professionalism: ethical perspectives of Israeli teachers. European Journal of Teacher Education, 32(4), 473-487.
  • Sharma, U., & Sokal, L. (2015). The impact of a teacher education course on pre-service teachers’ beliefs about inclusion: An international comparison. Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs, 15(4), 276-284.
  • Sharma, U., Loreman, T., & Macanawai, S. (2016). Factors contributing to the implementation of inclusive education in Pacific Island countries. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 1-16.
  • Talanquer, V., Tomanek, D., & Novodvorsky, I. (2007). Revealing student teachers’ thinking through dilemma analysis. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 18(3), 399-421. DOI:10.1007/s10972-007-9047-6
  • Tetler, S. (2015). Inklusion - som teoretisk begreb og pragmatisk bestræbelse [Inclusion - as a theoretical concept and pragmatic endeavour]. In K. B. Petersen (Ed.), Perspektiver på inklusion. Cursiv nr 17 [Perspectives on inclusion. Cursive No 17]. DPU Aarhus Universitet.
  • Tiwari, A., Das, A., & Sharma, M. (2012). Inclusive education a “rhetoric” or “reality”? Teachers’ perspectives and beliefs. Teaching and Teacher Education, 52, 128-136.
  • UNESCO. (1994). The Salamanca Statement and framework for action on special needs education. World Conference on Special Needs Education; Access and Quality. UNESCO.
  • Wanlin, P. (2011). Elèves forts ou faibles: qui donne le tempo? Une analyse de la place des élèves dans les processus de pensée des enseignants [Strong or weak students: who sets the tempo? An analysis of the place of students in teachers’ thought processes] (Doctoral Dissertation).
  • Wood, P., Evans, D., & Spandagou, I. (2014). Attitudes of principals towards students with disruptive behaviour: An Australian perspective. Australasian Journal of Special Education, 38, 14-33. DOI: 10.1017/jse.2014.5

inclusive education paradigm perspectives of meaning teaching

Message to:



© 2017 Adam Marszałek Publishing House. All rights reserved.

Projekt i wykonanie Pollyart