armed conflict

The Definition of the Armed Conflict in the Conditions of Cyber Warfare

Author: Mateusz Piątkowski
Institution: University of Łódź (Poland)
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 271-280
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2017117
PDF: ppsy/46-1/ppsy2017117.pdf

The paper is presenting the examination of the cyberwarfare phenomenon in its legal context. The cyberattacks are increasingly effective measures of modern combat and would probably become the most crucial dimension of forthcoming armed conflict. The role of the international humanitarian law is to determine whenever the cyberattack is reaching the threshold of an armed conflict. The aim of the article is to present the existing framework of ius in bello in terms of its temporal scope of applicability, especially in the light of the Tallinn Manual on the International Law Applicable to Cyber Warfare. It supported conclusion that the international law requires an revision of the armed conflict definition to sufficiently addressed the challenges arising from growing cyber activity. 

The Role of the Ethical Underpinnings of International Humanitarian Law in the Age of Lethal Autonomous Weapons Systems

Author: Kaja Kowalczewska
Institution: Pedagogical University of Krakow
Year of publication: 2019
Source: Show
Pages: 464-475
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2019305
PDF: ppsy/48-3/ppsy2019305.pdf

This paper presents selected conclusions related to the theoretical underpinnings of international humanitarian law, with special focus on the understanding of considerations of humanity and the dictates of public conscience (the Martens clause) and their impact on the regulation of lethal autonomous weapons systems. Despite the fact that different positions can be found in the doctrine, it is argued herein that the general principles of international humanitarian law are not sufficient to properly regulate the disruptive military technologies (new means and methods of warfare) and a new international norm is needed. Consequently, the paper agglomerates extra-legal and cross-cutting arguments stemming from other normative regimes that point to prioritization of the value of human life and the role and quality of the human factor in decision-making procedures relating to the health and life of victims of modern armed conflicts, which should be incorporated in it.

США–Талибан: трудности и перспективы реализации мирного соглашения

Author: Oleksandr Veretilnyk
Institution: Щецинский университет
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5286-4466
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 29-40
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/so2022102
PDF: so/21/so2102.pdf

US–Taliban: Difficulties and Prospects for Implementing the Peace Agreement

The article presents an analysis of the peace agreement signed between the United States of America and the Taliban on behalf of the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan. This agreement is intended to end the war in Afghanistan, in which the United States, NATO countries, and their allies are participating. The aim of the study was to answer the question: can this agreement lead to peace in Afghanistan? The main research methods were the content analysis methodology and the institutional-legal methodology.

Реалізація принципу заступництва в міжнародному гуманітарному праві. Особи, що потребують заступництва під час збройних конфліктів

Author: Оксана Сокиринська [Oksana Sokyrynska]
Institution: Білоцерківський національний аграрний університет [Bila Tserkva National Agrarian University]
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5171-2372
Author: Інна Ковальчук [Inna Kovalchuk]
Institution: Білоцерківський національний аграрний університет [Bila Tserkva National Agrarian University]
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1804-4189
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 7-12
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/CPLS.20223.01
PDF: cpls/3/cpls301.pdf

Implementation of the Principle of Advocacy in International Humanitarian Law. Persons in Need of Advocacy during Armed Conflicts

The article is devoted to the issue of topical issues of implementation and guarantee of the principle of protection of international humanitarian law. Advocacy is seen as protection not from the inevitable violence of war as such, but from arbitrariness caused by one warring party against persons belonging to the other warring party who came under the rule of the former during the war. One of the most important principles of international humanitarian law is that all persons who fall into the power of the enemy have the right to be treated humanely, regardless of their status and previous function or activity. International humanitarian law explicitly authorizes the parties to a conflict to take such control or security measures against persons under their control as may be necessary due to war. The right to protection is absolute and applies not only to persons deprived of their liberty, but also, more broadly, to the inhabitants of the territory under the control of the enemy. For example, the armed aggression of the Russian Federation against Ukraine, we can observe partial or complete disregard for the principle of patronage. If there are problems with the implementation and guarantee of the principles of international humanitarian law, states decide on their interpretation, primarily by international courts (these are special international criminal tribunals organized in connection with specific conflicts, the International Criminal Court and, of course, the International Court of Justice). UN) and tribunals, full-fledged decision-making on cases related to violations of international regulations.

Психічне здоров’я молоді в умовах військових конфліктів

Author: Леся Лотоцька
Institution: Львівський національний медичний університет імені Данила Галицького
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2690-1793
Author: Уляна Лотоцька-Дудик
Institution: Львівський національний медичний університет імені Данила Галицького
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7587-8457
Author: Юлія Брейдак
Institution: ТзОВ Медичний коледж «Монада»
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7282-7398
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 54-61
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ve.2022.03.05
PDF: ve/3/ve305.pdf

Mental Health of Young People in Times of Military Conflict

The complex set of political, social, economic and environmental factors that result from military conflicts have an indirect and prolonged effect on public health. The destruction of medical and public health infrastructure complicates the process of providing assistance to victims, limiting both access and quality. Mental health is an important dimension of human capital that significantly affects aspects of human life such as well-being, employment, work, capital, stigma, and so on. According to the WHO, in situations of armed conflict, about 10% of traumatized people will have serious mental health problems, and another 10% will develop behaviors that interfere with their ability to function effectively. Depression, anxiety and psychosomatic problems, such as insomnia, are the most common consequences. The younger generation living in conflict-affected areas is vulnerable to mental health problems. During the war, young people face two types of traumatic events: type I (sudden traumatic event) and type II (prolonged exposure to adverse events, which leads to dysfunctional coping mechanisms). As a result, young people suffer from anxiety disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and dissociative disorders. The most important variables that determine the impact of war on the mental health of young people are the deprivation of basic resources (housing, water, food, education, health, etc.); broken family relationships (due to loss, separation or relocation); stigma and discrimination (significantly affect identity); pessimistic worldview (constant feeling of loss and grief, inability to see a bright future). Meta-analyzes use mixed methods to study mental health and psychosocial well-being in non-standard settings, such as focus groups and in-depth interviews. This is necessary for the formation of the research question, modification of tools for the analysis of local situations and interpretation of the collected epidemiological data. Models of rehabilitation of psychosocial systems are based on the need for a multilevel approach to psychosocial interventions that take into account the individual, family and the community as a whole. The public health model requires the interaction between social and individual age and time variables, with particular emphasis on risk and protection groups at different stages of life.

The scope of the prohibition of the use of chemical weapons in international public law

Author: Agata Kleczkowska
Institution: PAN
Year of publication: 2014
Source: Show
Pages: 180-189
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/tpn2014.2.11
PDF: tpn/7/TPN2014211.pdf

The goal of the article is to examine if in international public law there is the prohibition of the use of chemical weapons during internal armed conflicts. The first part of the article deals with the previous regulations on the chemical weapons. Secondly, the Chemical Weapons Convention is discussed in relation to the scope of the prohibition. Then, the UN Security Council Resolution 2118 upon the Syrian conflict should be analyzed. Finally, the scope of the prohibition is related to the terms ‘war’ and ‘armed conflict’. The conclusions drawn from the abovementioned analyses depict that there is the strong need for an extension of the existing prohibition; however, no legal act has established it for now.

Armed Conflict as an ‘Undoing’ Force in Regional Integration and Its Impact on the Consolidation of AfCFTA Development Mission

Author: Munyayiwashe Shumba
Institution: University of Warsaw (Poland)
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4047-6965
Year of publication: 2024
Source: Show
Pages: 179-189
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy202410
PDF: ppsy/53-1/ppsy2024110.pdf

The paper examines the intricate relationship between armed conflict and regional integration, focusing on its role as an ‘undoing’ force in the African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA) context. A significant element of development and economic cooperation in Africa is the perennial problem of violent conflict in almost all sub-regions. Moreover, organized crime is rising across the continent, coupled with the emergence of new forms of violence associated with today’s globalization and other post-Cold War phenomena. Globalization has led to greater interdependence among countries and fostered cooperation among states. However, a country’s internal conflict often has repercussions beyond its borders and threatens regional and global peace and stability. In addition, armed conflict can affect countries’ relations and state cooperation. Peace provides a good foundation for development and economic cooperation, while development ensures the permanence of peace. The central question addressed in this paper is whether constructive regional economic integration and cooperation can be effectively achieved while some African countries are experiencing armed conflict. A qualitative research approach is used to analyze how armed conflict will likely negatively impact the achievement of AfCFTA goals.

Message to:

 

 

© 2017 Adam Marszałek Publishing House. All rights reserved.

Projekt i wykonanie Pollyart